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Reframing Organizations , 4 th ed. Chapter 16. Reframing in Action – Opportunities and Perils. Reframing in Action – Opportunities and Perils. Cindy Marshall: new manager with a big challenge Structural Scenario Human Resource Scenario Political Scenario Symbolic Scenario

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Chapter 16 l.jpg

Chapter 16

Reframing in Action – Opportunities and Perils


Reframing in action opportunities and perils l.jpg
Reframing in Action – Opportunities and Perils

  • Cindy Marshall: new manager with a big challenge

  • Structural Scenario

  • Human Resource Scenario

  • Political Scenario

  • Symbolic Scenario

  • Benefits and Risks of Reframing

  • Reframing for Newcomers and Outsiders


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Cindy Marshall

  • New manager with big challenge

    • High risk dilemma: looking weak vs. acting impetuously

  • Each frame suggests distinct possibilities

    • Reframing as tool for generating options

  • Scenarios: story-lines for generating options for action

    • Each frame can be effective or not, depending on skill and insight of individual


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Structural Scenario

  • Clarify goals

  • Attend to relationships between structure and environment

  • Design and implement structure to fit circumstances

  • Focus on task, facts, logic, not personality or emotion


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Human Resource Scenario

  • People are at the heart of organization

    • Respond to their needs and goals, and they’ll be committed and loyal in return

  • Align needs of individuals and organization, serving best interests of both

  • Support and empower people

    • Show concern, listen to their aspirations

    • Communicate warmth and concern

  • Empower through participation and openness

    • Give people resources and autonomy they need to do their jobs


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Political Scenario

  • Recognize political reality, deal with conflict

    • Scarce resources produce conflict over who gets what

  • Know the players (individuals and interest groups) and what they want

    • Build ties to key players and group leaders

  • Build a power base and use power carefully

    • Overplaying your hand makes you weaker

  • Create arenas for negotiation and compromise

  • Look for and emphasize common interests to unify your group

    • Rally troops against outside enemies


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Symbolic Scenario

  • Most important part of leader’s job is inspiration

    • Give people something to believe in

    • People get excited about a special place with unique identity where their work is important

  • Be passionate about making organization the best of its kind, communicate your passion

    • Use dramatic, visible symbols to involve people, communicate the mission

    • Be visible, energetic

    • Create slogans, hold rallies and celebrations, give awards, manage by walking around

  • Study and use organizational culture

    • Use heroes, stories, traditions as a base for build cohesive, meaningful culture

  • Articulate a persuasive, exciting vision


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Benefits and Risks of Reframing

  • Frames can be used as scenarios or scripts to generate options and guide action

    • By choosing a new script, we can act in new ways and create new possibilities

    • Choose the role and drama that works for you

  • Each frame has distinctive advantages and risks




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Reframing for Newcomers and Outsiders

  • Use of only one or two frames often leads to entrapment: inability to generate effective options in tough situations

    • Risk is even higher for newcomers and outsiders (including members of groups that have historically been excluded)

    • Newcomers and outsiders are less likely to get a second chance or the benefit of the doubt when they make mistakes


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Conclusion

  • Mangers can use the frames as scenarios, or scripts, to generate alternative approaches to challenging circumstances.

  • Reframing is a complex skill that takes time and persistence to develop