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DNA Protein Carbohydrates Phospholipids - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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1. The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane) surrounding every cell is composed primarily of ______. DNA Protein Carbohydrates Phospholipids. A phospholipid molecule: composed of a phosphate group and two fatty acid tails.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
1. The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane) surrounding every cell is composed primarily of ______.
  • DNA
  • Protein
  • Carbohydrates
  • Phospholipids
slide3

2. The phospholipids in the cell membrane are arranged in a bilayer (double layer). How are the phospholipid molecules arranged in this bilayer?

  • The nonpolar (hydrophobic) ends of the molecules faces inwards
  • The polar (hydrophilic) ends of the molecules faces inwards
  • The fatty acid tails of the molecules faces inward
  • Both A and C
  • Both B and C
slide4

The hydrophilic phosphate groups facing outwards helps the cell interact with the watery environment on both sides of the membrane.

  • The hydrophobic fatty acid tails in the interior of the membrane help create a barrier for many molecules to allow control of movement.
4 the term permeability means
4. The term permeability means
  • The ability of a substance to bend
  • The ability of a substance to allow gases or liquids to pass through
  • The ability of a substance to dissolve
  • The ability of a substance to exist for a long time with out deteriorating.
slide8

Permeable surface

Impermeable surface

(not permeable)

5 in diffusion molecules move from concentration in a process that additional energy
5. In diffusion, molecules move from _________________ concentration in a process that __________________ additional energy.
  • high to low; requires
  • high to low: does NOT require
  • low to high; requires
  • low to high; does NOT require
slide10

Additional energy is not required, because diffusion occurs due to the random motion of the molecules.

6 a hypotonic solution is one that
6. A hypotonic solution is one that
  • contains a higher concentration of solutes (dissolved particles)
  • contains an equal concentration of solutes
  • contains a lower concentration of solutes.
  • is at a higher temperature
  • is at a lower temperature
slide12

Prefix reminders:

Hypo = below

Hypothermia is to have a body temperature below normal.

Hyper= above

Hyperactive is to have high energy.

Iso= equal

An isoceles triangle has two equal sides.

slide13

7. If a cell with a 0.7 %sucrose concentration inside is placed in a solution that has a 0.5% sucrose concentration, the process of osmosis will occur. In this case,

  • sucrose will move into the cell
  • sucrose will move out of the cell
  • the cell will expand due to water gain
  • the cell will shrink due to water loss
  • both A and C
  • both B and D

O.5% sucrose

0.7 % sucrose

slide14

Sucrose is too large to move through the selectively membrane.

(Osmosis is occurring is a hint to this since it means the movement of water.)

Remember that while the solutions are described in terms of the solute concentration it is the water that moves.

The solution that has a lower solute concentration, has a higher water concentration.

Water will move from the hypotonic (low solute / higher water) towards the hypertonic (higher solute /lower water)

0.7 %sucrose

(99.7% water)

0.5% sucrose(99.5% water)

slide16

Paramecium living in fresh water ponds has to constantly pump out the water that flows into the cell.

slide17

8. If a cell with a 0.9% salt concentration inside is placed in a 1% salt solution, osmosis occurs. Which of the following will happen

  • the cell will shrink due to water loss
  • salt will move out of the cell
  • the cell will expand due to water gain
  • salt will move out of the cell
  • both A and D
  • both B and C
slide18

Salt is an ionic compound that can not move through the nonpolar barrier of the phospholipid membrane (without specialized channels).

  • In osmosis, water will move in the direction of the higher SOLUTE (lower water) concentration. Thus hypertonic solutions, such as one high in salt, causes cells to lose water.
  • Drinking salt water will dehydrate our cells
  • Plants will wilt in a hypertonic solution.
slide19
9. Which kind(s) of solution outside of a cell could cause it to swell and potentially lyse (burst open)?
  • a hypertonic solution
  • a hypotonic solution
  • an isotonic solution
  • both A and C
  • both B and C
slide21
10. A saline (salt) solution is used for fluid infusions into the blood stream. This solution needs to be ____ with blood cells.
  • hypotonic
  • hypertonic
  • isotonic
11 in an isotonic solution
11. In an isotonic solution
  • the cell swells
  • the cell shrinks
  • there is NO movement of water in or out of the cell
  • an equal amount of water moves into the cell as moves out
12 when a cell is placed in an isotonic solution
12. When a cell is placed in an isotonic solution,
  • there is no NET movement of water
  • there is a dynamic equilibrium
  • there is a static equilibrium
  • both A and B
  • both A and C
slide25

Net change = Inputs- Outputs. No net change when inputs and outs are balanced.

Dynamic equilibrium= an equilibrium (balance) is when there is motion but the inputs equal the outputs.

slide26

13. When a substance is secreted from a cell in a process in which a vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane to release the substance to the outside, it is called

  • endocytosis
  • exocytosis
  • osmosis
  • halitosis
slide27
14. O2 is a small, nonpolar molecule. If it is present outside the cell in high concentrationit can enter the cell by
  • Diffusion through the membrane
  • Passive transport
  • Active transport
  • A and B
  • A and C
slide28
15. Glucose is a larger polar molecule. If it is present outside of the cell in high concentration, it can enter the cell by
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Passive transport
  • Active transport
  • A and B
  • A and C
slide29
16. An amino acid (a large polar molecule) is present outside the cell in low concentration. It can be brought into the cell by
  • Facilitated diffusion through specialized channels
  • Passive transport
  • Active transport
  • A and B
  • Aand C
slide30

In facilitated diffusion, a channel allows the substance to move through the membrane. But no energy is provided, so it is a type of passive transport and it can only move the substance from high concentration to low concentration.

Active transport is required to move from low to high concentration.

slide31

Can move from low to high

  • Requires energy (ATP)
  • High to low only
  • Does not require energy
17 when a white blood cell engulfs a bacterium the process of has occurred
17. When a white blood cell engulfs a bacterium, the process of _________ has occurred.
  • Endocytosis
  • Excocytosis
  • Osmosis
  • Dialysis
slide34

18. What will happen for the following set-up in which two different liquids are separated by a selectively-permeable membrane. The dots represent solute particles that can not move through the membrane.

  • Water will move to the right
  • Water will move to the left
  • The system will remain in equilibrium
slide36

D

D

A

B

B

C

C

A

B

C

D

D

B

D

D

C

A

A