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Oklahoma State University Aerospace Capstone. Orange Team Final Presentation “Shamu: A Whale of a Plane” April 16, 2001. Orange Team Presentation Overview. Team Architecture and Group Responsibilities Technical Group Reports Aerodynamics Group Propulsion Group Structures Group

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oklahoma state university aerospace capstone

Oklahoma State UniversityAerospace Capstone

Orange Team Final Presentation

“Shamu: A Whale of a Plane”

April 16, 2001

orange team presentation overview
Orange Team Presentation Overview
  • Team Architecture and Group Responsibilities
  • Technical Group Reports
    • Aerodynamics Group
    • Propulsion Group
    • Structures Group
  • Financial Overview
  • Highlight Video
  • Questions

Orange Team

technical group responsibilities
Technical Group Responsibilities
  • Aerodynamics Group
    • Design of the aircraft
      • Airfoil Selection
      • Wing and Tail Sizing
      • Fuselage Configuration
      • Control Surface Sizing

Orange Team

technical group responsibilities1
Technical Group Responsibilities
  • Aerodynamics Group (con’t)
    • Integration of Propulsion Needs
      • Speed Controller, Motor, and Battery cooling
    • Adaptation to Structural Requirements
      • Wing carry-through structure, tail mounting, and control linkages
    • Construction Drawings

Orange Team

technical group responsibilities2
Technical Group Responsibilities
  • Propulsion Group
    • Testing
      • Power, Capacity, and Thrust from past motors and batteries
    • Selection and Sizing
      • Motor, Propeller, Batteries, and Gear Box
    • System Performance
      • Theoretical Flight Profile with Aerodynamics Group Optimization
      • Develop Sortie Strategy from Prototype Flight Tests

Orange Team

technical group responsibilities3
Technical Group Responsibilities
  • Structures Group
    • Structural Analysis and Design
      • Major Components are Wing, Fuselage, Tail, and Landing Gear
    • Construction Techniques and Materials
    • Component Placement
    • Group Responsible for Aircraft Construction

Orange Team

orange team aerodynamics group

Orange TeamAerodynamics Group

Tiffany Boehm – Lead

Luke Bell

Charles O’Neill

Greg Schulke

aerodynamics group
Aerodynamics Group
  • Preliminary Design Considerations
    • Optimization
    • Conceptual sketches were drawn by entire team
    • Additional sketches from underclassmen

Orange Team

aerodynamics group1
Aerodynamics Group
  • Optimization
    • Blends the contest rules and scoring details with aerodynamic and physical principles.
    • Produces the best scoring mission profile.
    • Also defines some aircraft information such as wing area and the amount of lift needed.

Orange Team

aerodynamics group2




Guess Values







Aerodynamics Group

Optimization Program Logic

Orange Team

aerodynamics group4
Aerodynamics Group
  • Preliminary Design Considerations
    • Evaluation of conceptual design
    • Selection of aircraft configuration
    • Further design decisions
    • Payload configuration exploration

Orange Team

aerodynamics group5
Aerodynamics Group
  • Five main configurations were considered in detail.
  • Conventional design chosen using decision matrix.

Orange Team

aerodynamics group6
Aerodynamics Group
  • Further design decisions for configuration
    • Wing placement
    • Tail configuration

Orange Team

aerodynamics group7
Aerodynamics Group
  • Payload configuration
    • Speed of payload exchange
    • Structural considerations
    • Weight

Orange Team

aerodynamics group8
Aerodynamics Group
  • Detail Design Considerations
    • Main airfoil selection
    • Stability and control development
    • Drag analysis and reduction
    • Further development of the optimization program

Orange Team

aerodynamics group9
Aerodynamics Group
  • Airfoil Selection
    • Wing span limited by contest rules.
    • Wing area and needed lift performance found using the optimization program
    • Polar plots used to find an airfoil with the desired lift and drag performance
    • Eppler 423 airfoil was chosen

Orange Team

aerodynamics group10
Aerodynamics Group
  • Stability and Control Issues
    • Weight and balance
    • Sizing of vertical and horizontal tail surfaces
    • Trim analysis
    • Aileron sizing
    • Polyhedral analysis

Orange Team

aerodynamics group11
Aerodynamics Group
  • Drag Analysis and Reduction
    • Identify main sources of drag
    • Design refinements for reduction of drag
    • Post-production modifications for further reduction of drag

Orange Team

aerodynamics group12
Aerodynamics Group

Drag Breakdown

Orange Team

aerodynamics group13
Aerodynamics Group
  • Steps taken to reduce drag
    • Improve surface smoothness of entire aircraft
    • Smooth, rounded transitions between surfaces
    • Tapered surfaces for the fore and aft assemblies
    • Fillets between the wing and fuselage surfaces
    • Fillets between the tail and fuselage surfaces
    • Wheel pants

Orange Team

aerodynamics group14
Aerodynamics Group

Drag Coefficients

Orange Team

aerodynamics group15
Aerodynamics Group
  • Optimization Program refinements
    • Aerodynamic Additions
      • Inclusions of drag analysis
    • Propulsion Additions
      • Experimental values integrated into program
      • Flight testing data used to further refine the program

Orange Team

aerodynamics group16
Aerodynamics Group
  • Final Design Summary
    • Conventional aircraft configuration
    • Low wing
    • Polyhedral wing
    • Cylindrical fuselage

Orange Team

propulsion posse pro pul sion pr p l sh n n

Propulsion Possepro·pul·sion - (pr -p l sh n) n.

The process of driving or propelling.

A driving or propelling force.

Amanda Ciskowski

propulsion posse

Propulsion Posse

Team Members

Binaya Thapa – Lead

Blake Cook

Millay Brians

propulsion overview
Propulsion Overview
  • Literature Survey
  • Restrictions
  • Motor Selection
  • Battery Selection
  • Propeller Selection

Orange Team

contest restrictions
Contest Restrictions
  • Motor
    • Restricted to Only Two Companies
    • Maximum Amperage - 40 Amps
    • Propeller Driven Brushed Electric Motor
    • Unmodified and “Over-the-Counter”
  • Battery
    • Nickel-Cadmium
    • Maximum Weight - Five Pounds
    • “Over-the-Counter”

Orange Team

motor selection
Motor Selection
  • Power Output – 1150 Watts
  • AstroFlight Motors
    • 640
    • 660
    • 690

Orange Team

battery selection
Battery Selection
  • Application
  • Capacity per Mass
  • Weight

Orange Team

propeller selection
Propeller Selection
  • Types of Propellers
    • APC
    • Wood
    • Carbon Fiber
    • Epoxy Composite
  • Pitch to Diameter Ratio
  • Theoretical/Experimental Analysis
    • Wind Tunnel Testing

Orange Team

final propulsion system
Final Propulsion System
  • AstroFlight – 661 Motor
  • Gear Box Ratio – 2.71
  • 37 Cells of RC-2400 Batteries
  • 22x20 Bolly Propeller

Orange Team

structures group

Structures Group

Michael Ayres – Team Lead

Jim Meiseman

Voon-Seng Chea

Chir Siang Pea

Naoki Hosoda

Loh Yuh

Jogendran Pulendran

Cheng Shan Gan

structures overview
Structures Overview
  • Fuselage
  • Wing
  • Tail Section
  • Landing Gear
  • Speed Loader

Orange Team

fuselage structure options
Fuselage Structure Options
  • Longerons
  • Reinforced Skin
  • Stringers
  • Keelson

Orange Team

fuselage figures of merit
Fuselage Figures of Merit
  • Weight
  • Bending Strength
  • Connection Interface
  • Construction Complexity

Orange Team

wing structure options
Wing Structure Options
  • Tube Spar
  • C-Channel Spar
  • End Grain Balsa Spar
  • Hybrid Spar

Orange Team

wing figures of merit
Wing Figures of Merit
  • Weight
  • Bending Strength
  • Connection Interface
  • Construction Complexity

Orange Team

landing gear types
Landing Gear Types
  • Conventional Bow
  • Single Stroke Strut
  • Two-Stroke Strut

Orange Team

landing gear figures of merit
Landing Gear Figures of Merit
  • Weight
  • Drag
  • Ground Steerability
  • Dependability
  • Manufacturability

Orange Team

final design
Final Design

Materials, carrythrough structure, and construction methods


- Foam/Carbon Fiber Sandwich

- Rotocut Tooling

- Balsa Sandwich Wing Carrythrough

Orange Team

final design cont d
Final Design Cont’d

Wing and Tail Section

- Foam/Carbon Fiber Sandwich

- Feathercut Tooling and Formica Templates

- Landing Gear Carrythrough

Landing Gear

- Multiple Layers of Carbon Fiber

Speed Loader

- Custom Sized Duffle Bag

Orange Team

financial overview

Financial Overview

Amanda Ciskowski- Chief Engineer

financial overview1
Financial Overview
  • Funding
    • Corporate and private sponsorship
    • Material Donations
  • Expense Categories
    • Mechanical and Electrical systems
    • Consumable materials

Orange Team

thank you to our sponsors

Advanced Composites Group

Pump and Motor Works, Inc.

Phillips 66


OSU Flight Factory

Advanced Racing Composites



Charles Machine Works


Frankfurt-Short-Bruza Associates

Thank you to our sponsors…

Orange Team

more sponsors
More sponsors…
  • William and Evelyn Ciskowski
  • Glen and Chris Taylor
  • Garryl and Tracy Keel
  • Keith and Barbara Keel

Orange Team

special thanks to
Special Thanks to…
  • Dr. Arena and Joe for all of their help
  • Dan Bierly, our pilot
  • Dr. Delahoussaye for his support…and the microwave
  • Janet Smith and Sally Kellenberger for the survival kits

Orange Team


Orange Team