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  1. MetropolitanCommunityCollege Audio Video Production Engineering Part 2 Video Rev. 5.5b

  2. Start Week 7 2

  3. Video and Vision • The Human Eye • Cornea • Lens • Retina • Optic Nerve 3

  4. Detailed Information • http://www.photo.net/photo/edscott/spectsel.htm#01 4

  5. Human Eye • www.photo.net 5

  6. Human Eye Detail 6

  7. Additional Fovea Details • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fovea 7

  8. More Vision Detail • http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/rodcone.html 8

  9. Rods and Cones • www.photo.net 9

  10. Visible Light Spectrum • Measured in Wavelength • Unit of measure nm (nanometer) • Approx. 400 nm – 700 nm 10

  11. Spectrum • www.photo.net 11

  12. Visible Spectrum • www.photo.net 12

  13. Spectral Sensitivity of Human Eye • www.photo.net 13

  14. Adjusted Spectrum • www.photo.net 14

  15. Low Light “Rods” • www.photo.net 15

  16. www.photo.net 16

  17. Color Temperature • Characteristic that can change our perception of color/hue 17

  18. www.photo.net 18

  19. Color Temperature • www.photo.net 19

  20. Relative intensity has been normalized for each temperature (in Kelvins). 20

  21. Color Temp & Light Source • 1000-2000 K Candlelight • 2500-3500 K Tungsten Bulb (household variety) • 3000-4000 K Sunrise/Sunset (clear sky) • 4000-5000 K Fluorescent Lamps • 5000-5500 K Electronic Flash • 5000-6500 K Daylight with Clear Sky (sun overhead) • 6500-8000 K Moderately Overcast Sky • 9000-10000 K Shade or Heavily Overcast Sky 21

  22. White Balance 22

  23. Lens filter setting • Select the FILTER according to the lighting condition. • Position 1 (3200K) : For shooting indoors with studio lighting • Position 2 (5600K + 1/8ND): For shooting outdoors. • Position 3 (5600K + 1/64ND): For shooting outdoors under a clear sky. 23

  24. White Bal Adjustment • 1. Set the following switches. • • Set the OPERATE switch to ON. • • Set the OUTPUT switch to CAM-AUTO KNEE OFF. • • Set the IRIS mode switch of the lens to A (Auto). • 2. Set the FILTER knob according to the current lighting. • 3. Set the WHT.BAL switch to A or B. 24

  25. 4. Place a white object near the center of the screen under the same lighting conditions as the target subject and zoom in to fill the screen with white. • 5. Tilt the AUTO WHT./ACCU FOCUS switch upward (to AUTO WHITE) once and release it. "AUTO WHITE A, B OPERATION" is displayed in the viewfinder while the auto white balance adjustment circuit operates. When the white balance has been adjusted correctly, the approximate color temperature is displayed together with “AUTO WHITE A, B OK” for about 5 seconds. 25

  26. The Television Picture • NTSC RS-170A standard • (standard def.) 26

  27. Horizontal Sync 27

  28. Color Framing 28

  29. Time Code • Considered to be a system of identifying locations of images or sound on recorded medium (film, tape, etc.) 29

  30. Time Code Types • Proprietary • SMPTE (LTC) • SMPTE VITC • Embedded digital • MIDI 30

  31. Usage Considerations • SMPTE standard will be used for discussion Additional detail: • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drop-frame_time_code 31

  32. Time Code Structure • 80 bit digital content • Hour, minute, second, frame, and other info. 32

  33. Timecode Data Structure 33

  34. Non-Drop Frame • Non-drop frame needed for digital video medium where each frame needs identification • Running time not accurate 34

  35. Drop Frame • Mainly used when accurate running time is desired • Drops numbers each minute on the minute except on 10th minutes 35

  36. NTSC Color Signals • Have an actual frequency of close to 29.97 frames-per-second. As cue points must be located at frame boundaries, this figure is normally rounded up to 30 frames-per-second, causing an excess of 108 frames per hour. 36

  37. To Eliminate These 108 Frames each Hour • Two specific time code frame values are dropped each minute (2x60=120), except every 10th minute (2x60-2x6=108). 37

  38. Time Code Values Dropped • Are specified as the first two frames of a minute. Thus, the time code number following 01:04:59:29 would be 01:05:00:02, time code frames 01:05:00:00 and 01:05:00:01 don't exist. 38

  39. Non-linear Editor Note: • non-dropframe timecode values as HH:MM:SS:FF and dropframe values as HH:MM:SS;FF 39

  40. VITC • Time code encoded into the video frame • Can be read while in still frame • Replaced in editing process 40

  41. Audio & Synchronizing • When used in audio or sweetening for video (layback) resolution uses ATR Tach. Usually 100th of a frame of video 41

  42. TC Switch Functions • REC : • Preset mode. Set to this position when newly • presetting and recording the time code. The time • code mode of the time code generator will be in • the REC run mode (time code runs only during • recording). • This position allows you to record continuous time • codes when recording scenes one after another. 42

  43. TC Switch Functions • FREE : • Preset mode. Set to this position when newly presetting and recording the time code. The time code mode of the time code generator will be in the FREE run mode (time code runs permanently). • Select this setting when the unit should be slavelocked with an external time code generator. 43

  44. TC Switch Functions • REGEN : • Regeneration mode, in which the unit reads existing time codes on the tape and records time codes in continuation of the existing ones. Set to this position when you want to add additional time codes to time codes already recorded on the tape. 44

  45. Time Code Info (16) 45

  46. TC input/output (4&5) 46

  47. TC Input • Input connector for the SMPTE-standard LTC signal. The built-in time code generator can be slave-locked with the input time codes. • If the user’s bits should also be slave-locked, set the VCR Setup Menu item No. 403 U-BIT SLAVE to “TC&UB”. 47

  48. * When the TC GENE switch (#17 on page 15) is set to REC or REGEN, or the VCR Setup Menu item No. 398 SSF MODE is set to “CUE MODE” or “MARK MODE”, slave-locking will not take place. For the slave lock of time code, see page 64. 48

  49. Time Code Menu 49

  50. End Week 7 • Review week 8 50