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Engineering 10 Chp.15Engineering Ethics Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical EngineerBMayer@ChabotCollege.edu
ReCall The Nature of Ethics • Ethics is generally concerned with rules or guidelines for morals and/or socially approved conduct • Ethical standards generally apply to conduct that can or does have a substantial effect on people’s lives
Models for Ethical Practice • Malpractice, or Minimalist, Model • Reasonable-Care, or Due-Care, Model • Good Works Model
MalPractice/Minimalist Model • The minimalist model holds that the professional is concerned only with meeting standards and requirements of the profession and any other laws or codes that apply. • This model looks to find fault when problems or accidents arise from someone's failure to meet a stated requirement; a “By-the-Book” Model
Due-Care Model • A model of engineering practice in which the engineer is expected to take reasonable precautions, or care, in the practice of his profession. • This model strives to prevent harm, and it appeals to a "standard of reasonableness as seen by a normal, prudent NONprofessional.“ • A “Do-No-Harm” Model
Good Works Model • A model of engineering practice in which engineers go beyond the basics of what is required by standards and codes and do what they "ought" to do to improve product safety, social health or social well-being.
Ethical/Moral Dilemmas • Ethical Issues are Seldom Black&White • Conflicting Demands on the Professional • Loyalty to Company & Colleagues • Concern for Public Welfare • Personal or Family gain, Ambition • Person Integrity • Ethical standards are usually relative and personal, there is seldom an absolutely correct application of the standards
Example Ethical Dilemma • KickBacks • A County Engineer in Vermont demanded a 25% kickback in secret payments for highway work contracts he issued. In 1973 he made such an offer to Kevin Nalla, a 32 year old civil engineer who was vice president of a young and struggling consulting firm greatly in need of the work. Nalla discussed the offer with others in the firm, who told him it was his decision to make. Finally Nalla agreed to the deal, citing as a main reason his concern for getting sufficient work to retain his current employees. • Was he Right or Wrong?
Example Ethical Dilemma • OverOptimism & MortgagePayment • You work for an Industrial Products Company. Currently business is slow, and if activity does not pick you may lose your Job and the Ability to Pay your Mortgage • An Engineer from General Motors (another struggling company) inquires about your products. He says GM will make a large purchase IF the product performs at the 93% Level when you Deliver the product in 7 months • You know that you have NEVER made a machine that did better than 88% performance. You think to yourself “I SHOULD be able to reach 93% in 7 months” • The GM Engineer’s job depends on your product meeting the 93% requirement. Any Doubt will KILL the order. • What do you say to the GM Engineer?
¿¿¿ Class Question ??? • Has anyone Personally Observed any Ethical Dilemmas at their Place of Employment? • If so, then Please Elaborate on the Situation (withOUT Names of Course)
Engineering Codes of Ethics • Codes of Ethics Provides truly “Professional” Engineers with a FrameWork for making good Decisions when confronted with Ethically Murky Situations as described in the last two examples
Ethics Code(s) Limitations • Many engineering design decisions may be based upon interpretation of disputed or incomplete information. In addition, tradeoffs revolving around competing issues of risk vs. benefit, or safety vs. economics may require judgments that are not fully addressed simply by application of the code. • No code can give immediate and absolute answers to all ethical and professional problems that an engineer may face. Creative problem solving is often called for in ethics, just as it is in other areas of engineering.
NCEES Code • There are Several Versions of Engineering Codes of Ethics • ASME Code • NSPE Code • ABET (old ECPD) Code • Examine in More Detail • NCEES Model Rules of Professional Conduct • NCEES ≡ National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying
NCEES Code Structure • As part of his/her responsibility to the public, an engineer is responsible for knowing and abiding by the code • The three major sections of the model rules address • Engineer's Obligations to Society, • Engineer's Obligations to Employers, Customers, and Clients, • Engineer's Obligations to Other Engineers
NCEES Model for Conduct • Engineers shall recognize their responsibility to the public and shall represent themselves before the public only in an objective and truthful manner. • They shall avoid conflicts of interest and faithfully serve the legitimate interests of their employers, clients, and customers within the limits defined by these rules. Their professional reputation shall be built on the merit of their services, and they shall not compete unfairly with others
NCEES Model for Conduct • Engineer’s Obligation To Society • in the performance of their services for clients, employers, and customers, the Engineer’s first & foremost responsibility is to the public welfare • Engineers shall approve and seal only those design documents that conform to accepted engineering standards and safeguard the life, health, property, and welfare of the public. • Engineers shall notify their employer or client and such other authority as may be appropriate when their professional judgment is OVERRULED under circumstances where the life, health, property, or welfare of the public is endangered.
NCEES Model for Conduct • Engineer’s Obligation To Society • Engineers shall be objective and truthful in professional reports, statements, or testimony. They shall include all relevant and pertinent information in such reports, statements, or testimony. • Engineers shall express a professional opinion publicly only when it is founded upon an adequate knowledge of the facts and a competent evaluation of the subject matter. • Engineers shall issue no statements, criticisms, or arguments on technical matters which are inspired or paid for by interested parties, unless they explicitly identify the interested parties on whose behalf they are speaking and reveal any interest they have in the matters.
NCEES Model for Conduct • Engineer’s Obligation To Society • Engineers shall not permit the use of their name or firm name by, nor associate in the business ventures with, any person or firm which is engaging in fraudulent or dishonest business or professional practices. • Engineers having knowledge of possible violations of any of these Rules of Professional Conduct shall provide the board with the information and assistance necessary to make the final determination of such violation.
NCEES Model for Conduct • Obligations To Employer and Clients • Engineers shall undertake assignments only when qualified by education or experience in the specific technical fields of engineering involved. • Engineers shall not affix their signatures or seals to any plans or documents dealing with subject matter in which they lack competence, nor to any such plan or document not prepared under their direct control and personal supervision.
NCEES Model for Conduct • Obligations To Employer and Customers • Engineers may accept assignments for coordination of an entire project, provided that each design segment is signed and sealed by the Engineer responsible for preparation of that design segment • Engineers shall not reveal facts, data, or information obtained in a professional capacity without the prior consent of the customer or employer except as authorized or required by law
NCEES Model for Conduct • Obligations To Employer and Clients • Engineers shall not solicit or accept financial or other valuable consideration, directly or indirectly, from contractors, their agents, or other parties in connection with work for employers or clients. • Engineers shall make full prior disclosures to their employers or clients of potential conflicts of interest or other circumstances which could influence or appear to influence their judgment or the quality of their service
NCEES Model for Conduct • Obligations To Employer and Customers • Engineers shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one party for services pertaining to the same project, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all interestedparties
NCEES Model for Conduct • Obligations To Employer and Clients • Engineers shall not solicit or accept a professional contract from a governmental body on which a principal or officer of their organization serves as a member. Conversely, Engineers serving as members, advisors, or employees of a government body or department, who are the principals or employees of a private concern, shall not participate in decisions with respect to professional services offered or provided by said concern to the governmental body which they serve
NCEES Model for Conduct • Engineer’s Obligation to Other Engineers • Engineers shall not falsify or permit misrepresentation of their associates, academic or professional qualifications. They shall not misrepresent or exaggerate their degree of responsibility in prior assignments nor the complexity of said assignments. Employment or Business Presentations shall not misrepresentpertinent facts concerning employers, employees, associates, joint ventures, or past accomplishments
NCEES Model for Conduct • Engineer’s Obligation to Other Engineers • Engineers shall not offer, give, solicit, or receive, either directly or indirectly, any commission, or gift, or other valuable consideration in order to secure work, and shall not make any political contribution with the intent to influence the award of a contract by public authority
NCEES Model for Conduct • Engineer’s Obligation to Other Engineers • Engineers shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation, prospects, practice, or employment of other Engineers, nor indiscriminately criticize the work of other Engineers
NCEES Model Summarized • Engineer’s Obligation To Society • Public Welfare is MOST important • Designs Must be SAFE • MUST report when over-ruled judgment endangers Public Welfare or Safety • Be HONEST in Reporting & Testimony • Do NOT Guess or Speculate when offering “Professional Opinions” • Do NOT take Bribes for Opinions
NCEES Model Summarized • Engineer’s Obligation To Society • Do NOT associate with Dishonest Organizations or Persons • MUST CoOperate with Investigating Bodies on Matters of Professional Conduct • Obligation To Employer & Clients • ONLY take Assignments for Which the Engineer has adequate Qualifications
NCEES Model Summarized • Obligation To Employer & Customers • Do NOT • Practice outside your Expertise • Approve Unsupervised Work • May, as a “Project Manager”, delegate work to other Qualified Engineers • MUST Respect Confidential Information • Must NOT take “KickBacks” • Must DISCLOSE any Potential Conflict(s) of Interest
NCEES Model Summarized • Obligation To Employer & Clients • NO Double-Dipping • NO divided loyalties between public & private organizations → NO inside Lobbying • Obligation to Other Engineers • Do NOT LIE on your Résumé • Do NOT offer BRIBES • Do NOT Malign Engineer’s Reputations
BMayer on “SLEAZE” • SLEAZE is not a Strategy for Long-Term Success • If SomeThing seems SLEAZY, then Stay Away from it
All Done for Today • Consistent Effort • Collegiality • Loyalty • Respect for authority • Confidentiality • Avoid conflicts of interest • Act as faithful agent ResponsibilitytoEmployers • Employers are just PEOPLE – They deserve Respect
Engineering 10 Appendix Time For Live Demo Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical EngineerBMayer@ChabotCollege.edu
ASME Code of Ethics • The Fundamental Principles • Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and dignity of the Engineering profession by: • I. using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement of human welfare; • II. being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity the public, their employers and clients; and • III. striving to increase the competence and prestige of the engineering profession. • The Fundamental Canons • 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties. • 2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence. • 3. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision. • 4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest. • 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others. • 6. Engineers shall associate only with reputable persons or organizations. • 7. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. • NOTE THAT THE ASME ADDS A STATEMENT OF FIVE TIME THIS LENGTH TITLED "THE ASME CRITERIA FOR INTERPRETATION OF THE CANONS" Last updated 96/01/22
ABET Code of Ethics of Engineers • 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties. • 2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence. • 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. • 4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall avoid conflicts of interest. • 5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with others. • 6. Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the profession. • 7. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for the professional development of those engineers under their supervision.
IEEE Code of Ethics • We, the members of the IEEE, in recognition of the importance of our technologies in affecting the quality of life throughout the world, and in accepting a personal obligation to our profession, its members and the communities we serve, do hereby commit ourselves to the highest ethical and professional conduct and agree: • to accept responsibility in making engineering decisions consistent with the safety, health and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; • to avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist; • to be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data; • to reject bribery in all its forms; • to improve the understanding of technology, its appropriate application, and potential consequences; • to maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; • to seek, accept, and offer honest criticism of technical work, to acknowledge and correct errors, and to credit properly the contributions of others; • to treat fairly all persons regardless of such factors as race, religion, gender, disability, age, or national origin; • to avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action; • to assist colleagues and co-workers in their professional development and to support them in following this code of ethics. • - Approved by the IEEE Board of Directors, August 1990