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Challenges of Scaling Up Promising Practices for achieving Gender Equality in Education in South Asia Jyotsna Jha Commonwealth Secretariat Lahore, Pakistan February 2nd, 2006
The Context - 1 • South Asia is home to about one-fourth of the world’s out-of-school children and adult illiterates; majority of them being girls and women • Nationally and internationally we are all committed to EFA goals and MDGs • Gender parity and equality in education are major means to achieve other education and development goals, as well as to ensure desired rights and freedoms to all citizens
The Context - 2 • Commonwealth Secretariat organised a regional workshop on Promising Practices and Implications for scaling up girls’ education in India in 2004 • A number of cases studies (12 from five countries) presented and analysed from the perspective of scaling up; analytical report available • This dialogue meant to take the task of sharing and learning forward
The Lessons learnt from the analysis of case studies: Scaling Up-1 • Scaling up is not an issue of arithmetic expansion; it is a matter of re-strategising • Scaling up requires adaptation of the entire approach to the context • Adaptation or re-strategising should not undermine or kill the process that were critical for making that practice successful • The essence and the factors that have made a particular strategy successful need to be clearly identified and retained at the time of adaptation
The Lessons learnt from the analysis of case studies: Scaling Up-2 • Partnerships forged, nurtured and promoted in real terms, not only in name • The required policy or institutional changes must be introduced simultaneously (e.g., establishment of suitable monitoring mechanisms and processes) otherwise mismatches do not allow scaling up to be successful
The Lessons learnt from the analysis of case studies: Mainstreaming gender in education -1 • Limited understanding of the notion of gender equality at various levels (at times varying notions) • The need for integrating gender at all stages (policy, institution, programme design, budgeting, implementation and monitoring) not realised • The issue of gender often seen as an ‘add-on’ and hence additive or iterative solutions; not integrated ones • Often viewed as women’s issue – nothing to do with men; as a result often ridiculed
The Lessons learnt from the analysis of case studies: Mainstreaming gender in education -2 • Gender Inequalities justified on the name of culture • Often not linked with other forms of inequalities that exist; therefore, seen as competing to find a space • It is possible to develop and implement curriculum which focuses on equity and diversity issues • To conclude, the challenges of scaling up Promising Practices for achieving Gender Equality in Education are far greater (scaling up + gender mainstreaming)
Scaling Up Re-strategising, not plantation Adaptation of the entire approach and retention of critical factors and processes Partnerships forged, nurtured and promoted with an appreciation of the strengths and constraints on both sides; challenges of up scaling understood by all Introduction of the required policy or institutional changes (reforming institutional structures and processes, having mechanisms to ensure smooth implementation and monitoring of policy choices made…….) Mainstreaming gender Build common and clear understanding of gender related issues at various levels (moving beyond rhetoric and ‘orientation’) Presence of a system to integrate gender organically at all stages, as a people’s and not as women’s issue; and having links with other forms of inequalities Develop capacity to distinguish between contextualisation and justifying gender unequal practices on the name of culture Development and implementation of curriculum that focuses on equity and diversity issues What are therefore the Policy and Institutional Challenges?