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Divine Revelation: A study of the qur’anic sciences. Lecture 2 January 27 2013. Wahy. Chapter 1.3. The need for WAHY. Allah SWT sent human beings down to the earth in order to utilize their surroundings and obey His commandments This is only possible through the human acquiring knowledge

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divine revelation a study of the qur anic sciences
Divine Revelation: A study of the qur’anic sciences

Lecture 2

January 27 2013

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

slide2
Wahy

Chapter 1.3

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

the need for wahy
The need for WAHY
  • Allah SWT sent human beings down to the earth in order to utilize their surroundings and obey His commandments
    • This is only possible through the human acquiring knowledge
  • Tools for the Acquisition of Knowledge
    • FiveSenses(al-ḥawasal-khamsah)
    • Intellect (‘aql)
    • Revelation(waḥy)
  • The only way to be sure that the five senses and the intellect have come to the correct conclusions is to see if it is consistent with revelation.

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

definition of wahy
Definition of WAHY

Definition of Wahy:

  • Literal: To make a quick gesture or to communicate secretly or unclearly.
  • Technical: It is the speech of Allah that is revealed upon a prophet from amongst His prophets.

By means of Wahy, people are taught those things which they cannot learn from their senses and intellect alone.

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

kinds of wahy
Kinds of wahy

‘Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri has classified Wahy into three basic types:

  • WAHY AT HEART (WahyQalbi)
    • Revelation that is sent directly to the heart of a Prophet, where neither an angel is sent nor is hearing involved; can be sent in a state of wakefulness or sleep – includes dreams and visions.
      • Ibrahim (AS)
  • DIRECT DISCOURSE (KalamIlahi)
    • Direct conversation with Allah with no interlink of an angel; the Prophet does hear a voice, however this voice is entirely different than anything from creation – the most honorific form of Wahy.
      • Musa (AS) and Muhammad (ﷺ)
  • ANGELIC WAHY (WahyMalaki)
    • Allah sends a message to a Prophet through an angel; the angel may not be visible and only his voice is heard, or he may come in human form, or (rarely) he may come in his original form.

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

example in qur an
Example in qur’an

وَمَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَنْ يُكَلِّمَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَّا وَحْيًا أَوْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ رَسُولًا فَيُوحِيَ بِإِذْنِهِ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِنَّهُ عَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌ

It is not (possible) for a human being that Allah speaks to him, except by way of revelation, or from behind a barrier, or that He sends a courierand he reveals, with His permission, what He wills. Surely, He is All-High, All-Wise. (Shūrā42:51)

  • “Except by way of revelation” refers to WahyQalbi
  • “From behind a barrier” refers to KalamIlahi
  • “He sends a courier” refers to WahiMalaki

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

ways wahy came to prophet
Ways wahy came to Prophet ﷺ

1.Salsalat al-Jaras(Chiming of Bells)

  • Various interpretations:
    • Some scholars interpret this as the voices of angels, while some think this sound was the flutter of the angels’ wings.
    • AllamahKhattabi: “Ringing” does not relate to the tune of sound, but is referring to the continuity of revelation—similar to the ringing of a bell
    • IbnArabi: When a bell chimes, it is difficult to tell which directions the reverberations are coming from. In this way, revelation was understood not to be coming from one specific direction.
  • This type was the most difficult on the Prophet ﷺ

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

ways wahy came to prophet1
Ways wahy came to Prophet ﷺ

2.Tamaththul Insān (In the form of a human):

  • Jibrilwould appear to the Prophet ﷺ in the form of a human being
    • DihyahKalbi
    • A stranger (Hadith Jibril – narration of Umar bin Khattab)

3.Tamaththul Malak (In the form of an angel):

  • Jibrīlcame to the Prophet in his true angelic form on at least two certain occasions:
    • Once when the Prophet asked Jibrilto show him his true form
    • During Israand Mi’raj
    • A third time appears in hadith, during the early stage of the Prophet’s message at Ajyadin Makkah, but its authenticity is doubtful.

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

ways wahy came to prophet2
Ways wahy came to Prophet ﷺ

4. True Dreams

  • Before the revelation of the Qur’an began
    • Whatever he saw in a dream happened in exactly the same manner

5. Discourse with Allah (KalamIlahi)

  • On the Isra and Mi’raj – command of Salah given
  • Once in a dream

6. Inspiration in the Heart (WahyQalbi)

  • Jibril would place the revelation directly into the heart of the Prophet ﷺ without himself appearing.

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

wahy matluw and ghayr matluw
Wahy: Matluw and ghayrmatluw
  • Matluw(Qur’anic)
    • “Recited”
    • Comprises verses of Qur’an in which words and meanings are both from Allah
    • Fundamental beliefs and basic teachings of Islam
  • GhayrMatluw(non-Qur’anic)
    • “Not recited”
    • Does not form a part of Qur’an, but a large number of commands and tenents have been sent through it
    • Preserved in the form of Hadith – the subject matter was revealed to the Prophet ﷺwho then expressed it in his own words

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

kashf ilham
Kashf & ilham

Wahy is specific for the Prophets. Any other person, irrespective of his spiritual status, cannot be a recipient of Wahy. However, sometimes Allah does inspire certain things to some of His selected servants.

  • Kashf – “the removal of a veil”
    • Allah removes a barrier from the spiritual realm so a human can perceive and sense the spiritual realm
  • Ilham – “inspiration”
    • Allah inspires a thought or feeling into the heart
  • Neither Kashf nor Ilham are certain – unlike Wahy– hence they do not form arguments in faith or become obligatory

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

beginning of revelation
Beginning of revelation

Chapter

1.4

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

descent of the qur an
Descent of the qur’an
  • The Qur’an is the Word of Allah and is preserved in the Guarded Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuzh)
    • “Nay! It is the Glorious Qur’an, in the Guarded Tablet.”

(Al-Buruj 21-22)

    • Has existed here since the beginning of time – the Qur’an is uncreated
  • From al-Lawh al-Mahfuzh, the Qur’an was then sent down in two stages:
    • First: to al-Bayt al-Ma’mur (or Bayt al-Izzah) – the Ka’ba of the Angels located above the 7th heaven, directly above the Ka’ba of the Earth
      • الانزال– Inzal
        • Revelation of the entire Qur’an at once from al-Lawh al-Mahfuzh to al-Bayt al-Ma’mur
    • Second: to the heart of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
      • التنزيل– Tanzil
        • Revelation in piecemeal over the course of Prophethood (23 years) from al-Bayt al-Ma’mur to the heart of the Prophet ﷺ via Angel Jibril

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

possible wisdom of inzal and tanzil
Possible Wisdom of inzal and tanzil
  • Inzal
    • Allamah Abu Shamah: To emphasize the splendor of Qur’an and to honor the Ummah of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, and to make clear to the Angels that this is the final revelation to humanity
    • AllamahZarqani: To establish that there is no doubt in the safeguarding of the Qur’an, as it is stored in three places
  • Tanzil
    • Imam Razi:
      • If revealed all at once, difficult for Prophet ﷺ to memorize
      • All commandments would have become obligatory all at once, which would have been contradictory to objectives of Shari’ah
      • To strengthen the heart and spirit of the Prophet ﷺ during times of difficulty
      • Much of the Qur’an deals with answers to questions of the people and various events at different times

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

first revelation to prophet
First revelation to prophet ﷺ
  • The Prophet ﷺwas 40 years old
  • Retreat to the Cave of Hira
  • Ramadan – Laylat-ulQadr (the Night of Power)
    • 17th, 19th, or 27th night of Ramadan according to various narrations
    • (Battle of Badr took place on this date 11 years later)
  • Sayyida ‘Aisha:
    • The Wahy started as true dreams. Thereafter, he received an urge for prayer and meditation, and for that he used to spend several days and nights in the Cave of Hira, until one day Allah sent an Angel to the cave, and the Angel said ‘Read!’ The Prophet replied 'I do not know how to read'. The Prophet added, 'The angel caught me (forcibly) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it anymore. He then released me and again said ‘Read!’ and I replied, ‘I do not know how to read’. Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again said ‘Read!’ but again I replied, ‘I do not know how to read.’ Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said:

"Read! In the name of Your Lord, who created, created man from a clot. Read! And Your Lord is the most Bountiful...” (Surah Al-Alaq)

    • The wisdom behind squeezing & Prophet ﷺ physically meeting Jibril (AS)

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

first revelation to prophet1
First revelation to prophet ﷺ
  • The narration continues:
    • Went home to Khadijah (RA), asked to be wrapped up
    • Period of three years with no revelation (Fatrat al-Wahy)
      • Very distressing for Prophet ﷺ
      • Was worried Allah had abandoned him
  • After period of no revelation, the Prophet ﷺ again saw the same angel sitting on a chair between the earth and the sky
    • Surah Al-Muddathir
  • Majority of scholars agree that first revelation consisted of first few verses of Surah Al-Alaq, and then were the verses of Surah Al-Muddathir.

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

minority opinions
Minority opinions
  • Surah Al-Muddathir was first revelation, followed by Surah Al-Alaq (based on narration of Ibn Jabir)
    • Hafiz ibnHajar’s explanation – missing sentences
  • AllamahZamakhshari: first revelation was Surah Al-Fatiha (based on narration by Amr bin Hubayl in collection of Baihaqi)
    • Hafiz ibnHajar refutes
    • Imam Baihaqi himself states this incident possibly came after Surah Al-Alaq and Surah Al-Muddathir
  • Tatbiq
    • No chair in Cave of Hira
    • Al-Fatiha first revelation as a Surah
  • Beyond a few narrations, the majority of narrations and scholars support the commonly known sequence (Surah Al-Alaq, then Surah Al-Muddathir)

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

final revelation
Final revelation
  • Many scholars agree the final revelation from the Qur’an to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was:

وَٱتَّقُوا۟ يَوْمًۭا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ ۖ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍۢ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

'And fear the day when ye shall be brought back to God. Then shall every soul be paid what it earned and none shall be dealt with unjustly.‘ (Al-Baqarah 2:281)

  • Other opinions: 2:278, 2:282, etc.
  • Some say the final revelation was:

ٱلْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِى وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ ٱلْإِسْلَٰمَ دِينًۭا

'This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.‘ (Al-Maidah 5:3)

  • Not sound according to many scholars
    • Revealed during last Hajj of Prophet ﷺ, based on narration from Umar (R)
    • Imam Suyuti: After this verse nothing concerning Islamic law was revealed, and in this sense it is the 'completion' of religion. However, revelation reminding man of the Day of Judgment continued and the last such revelation is (2:281)
  • The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ passed away from this world nine nights following the final revelation

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI

assignments questions
Assignments & questions
  • Review Chapter 1.3-1.4
  • Read ahead: Chapter 2.1 to 3.1
    • Online version of Course Manual posted in Student Portal at www.DKinstitute.net
    • Copies of manuals will be distributed next week in class, inshaAllah
  • Questions?

Qur'anic Sciences - DKI