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Additional journal/reading assignment: “Royal Instructions for the Viceroy Mendoza” José Marti, “Our America,” 1891, and “The History of Mexican Independence” All 3 are on course website “Readings.” .

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Additional journal

  • Additional journal/reading assignment:

    • “Royal Instructions for the Viceroy Mendoza”

    • José Marti, “Our America,” 1891, and

    • “The History of Mexican Independence”

      All 3 are on course website “Readings.”


Additional journal

For the quiz on October 15, be prepared to write a 25-minute essay that brings together all the readings and lectures on the colonial era through the concept of identity in representations of Latin America by both European and Latin American artists. Focus on at least three artworks and include full identification: names, dates, titles, locations (if architecture), and as many facts as possible.


Independence and its heroes

Independence and its Heroes

Independence…remained by far the most important moment

for the new nations that emerged; representations of its

heroes and martyrs have become talismans or icons

signifying those beliefs, and reinterpreted with reverence, or

with irony, by artists in the twentieth century for whom national

or Latin American identity in cultural and political terms

remains an unresolved and therefore potent issue.

(Ades p.7)


Additional journal

(left) Claudio Linati,Miguel Hidalgo, from Costumes du Mexique, Brussels, 1828(center and right) Juan O’Gorman (Mexican, 1905-1982), detail from Chapultepec Castle (now National Museum of History, Mexico City) mural showing Hidalgo, c.1944; Portrait of Miguel Hidalgo, n.d., preparatory study for mural, charcoal on paperHidalgo, a parish priest, initiated the 1810 indigenous uprising against Spain. However: “Both culturally and economically, Independence was for the creoles, not the Indians.” (Ades)

“Father of Mexico”


Additional journal

Stairway roof with portrait of Miguel Hidalgo by Jose Clemente Orozco in the Palacio del Gobierno. Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, 1937, fresco


Additional journal

Antonio Salas (attributed), Portrait of Simon Bolivar 1829, o/c, 23” x 18”. Bolivar (1783-1830), from a wealthy Venezuelan creole family, led independence wars in the present nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, gaining independence for most of the northern part of South America

“It will be said that I have

liberated the new World,

but it will not be said that

I perfected the stability and

happiness of any of the

nations that compass it.”

“We have ploughed the sea”

Bolivar


Additional journal

Pedro José Figueroa, Simon Bolivar, Liberator and Father of the Nation, 1819, oil on canvas, Quinta de Bolivar, Colombia; Indian woman as “America” or the New Republic


Academies and history painting
Academies and History Painting

“The Royal Academy of san Carlos in Mexico City, founded in 1785,

was the first academy of art in America, and the only one established

under colonial rule…. In Brazil, the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes

was founded in Rio de Janeiro…in 1826 with the French painter

J.B. Debret, who trained in David’s studio, as director…. In Peru,

the Academy was founded in 1919….” (coinciding with the arrival of

modern art)

(Ades)


Additional journal

Natalia Majluf, “Ce n’es pas le Peru,” or, the Failure of Authenticity: Marginal Cosmopolitans at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1855”“The movement of artists and intellectuals from Latin America to metropolitan centers (and usually back) increased dramatically after independence from Spain in the early nineteenth century…young Creole Americans traveled to Paris, London, and Rome not as exiles or émigrés but as cosmopolitans, as participants in a world culture.” “…but the international community has systematically rejected any sign of their sameness.” (Majluf)


Francisco laso the indian potter or dweller in the cordillera 1855 o c 4 4 h lima
Francisco Laso of Authenticity: Marginal Cosmopolitans at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1855”, The Indian Potter (or Dweller in the Cordillera), 1855, o/c, 4’4” H., Lima

“The same comparative context that rejected

the cosmopolitanism of the Latin American

artists served simultaneously to locate

France at the very center of the international

art scene.” Majluf


Additional journal

José Ferraz de Almeida Junior of Authenticity: Marginal Cosmopolitans at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1855” (Brazil 1859-1899), The Guitar Player, 1899, o/c, 56” H, Pinocoteca do Estado de Sao Paolo. Academic genre paintings “costumbrismo” and “realism”


Additional journal

(left) Aztec goddess, Coatlique, c. 1500 C.E. discovered in 1790, Mexico City; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4th Century B.C.The Royal Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City was thoroughly European in its aims and practices. Students studied from a selection of plaster casts of Greek and Roman sculptures sent from Spain. The question of “beauty” of European versus ancient Indigenous Mexican work was discussed.


Juan cordero mexico 1824 1884 the bather c 1860 oil on canvas 59 x 45 in
Juan Cordero 1790, Mexico City; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4 (Mexico, 1824-1884), The Bather, c.1860, oil on canvas, 59 X 45 in.

Cordero’s draped nude shocked Mexican visitors at a 1864 exhibition.


Additional journal

Juan Cordero 1790, Mexico City; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4(Mexico, 1824-1884), Columbus Before the Catholic Monarchs, 1850, o/c, 68” H. First history painting of an American subject seen by Mexican viewers.

Academic history paintings were popular in the New World.


Additional journal

Martín Tovar y Tovar 1790, Mexico City; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4(Venezuela, 1827-1902), The Battle of Carabobo (detail), 1887, one ofsix canvas murals for the dome of the Salón Elíptico in the capitol building of Caracas, Venezuela 1887. Simón Bolívar’s revolutionary army won the 1821 battle and entered Caracas to claim independence for Venezuela.


Jos maria obreg n the inspiration of columbus 1856 oil 58 high
José Maria Obregón 1790, Mexico City; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4, The Inspiration of Columbus, 1856, oil, 58” high


Additional journal

Arturo Michelena 1790, Mexico City; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4 (Venezuela 1863 -1898), Miranda in La Carraca, 1896, oil on canvas, Galeria de Arte Nacional, Caracas. Comparison (right) is Jacques-Louis David, Death of Socrates, 1787. Neo-Classicism, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


Anonymous castes 18 th century oil on canvas 58 x 41
Anonymous 1790, Mexico City; (right) Praxiteles, Hermes & Dionysus, 4, Castes, 18th century, oil on canvas, 58 x 41”

Reading: “Dispossession, Assimilation, and the Image of the Indian in Late Nineteenth Century Mexican Painting,”

by Stacie Widdifield


Additional journal

The captions in the above paintings say, top, "from mulato and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African.

What was Stacie Widdifield’s thesis in

“Dispossession, Assimilation,

and the Image of the Indian in Late-

Nineteenth-Century Mexican Painting”?


Additional journal
Felix Parra and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , The Massacrre of Cholula (detail, below right), 1877, oil on canvas, 31 x 41 inches, National Museum of Art, Mexico City

Subjects are “objects of paternalism typical

of 19th century writing about the contemporary

Indian.”


Additional journal

Felix Parra and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Friar Bartolomé de las Casas, 1875, oil on canvas, Museo Nacional de Arte, Mexico City. The woman turns to the Christian friar and not the Aztec god.


Additional journal

Isidro Martinez and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , The Princess Papantzin, 1880, oil on canvas, 44 x 70inches. Museo de Bellas Artes de Toluca, State of Mexico. Sister of Moctezuma II, Papantzin’s Europeanized features are a sign of her conversion to Christianity.


Additional journal

José Escudero y Espronceda and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Portrait of Benito Juarez and Margarita Maza de Juarez, 1890, oil on canvas, 28 x 23 inches, Museu Nacional de Historia, Mexico City


Additional journal
José Maria Obregón and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Discovery of Pulque, 1869, oil on canvas73 x 91 in., Museo Nacional de Arte, Mexico City

Xochitl, who discovered pulque, presents it to Tecpancaltzin

Academic Neoclassicism in Mexico


Additional journal

Leandro Izaguirre and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Torture of Cuauhtémoc, 1893, oil on canvas, over 9 x 14 feet, National Museum of Art, Mexico City. Cuauhtémoc (c.1502–1525) was the Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan from 1520 to 1521. Painted for the Chicago World’s Fair of 1893.

Historicist indigenism


Additional journal

Traveler-Reporter Artists and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. Produced by European artists between1810-1860 in all parts of Latin AmericaSubjects were empirical: scientific, topological, and socialNature, Science, and the PicturesqueProduced by European and Latin American artists for in the decades following Independence


Additional journal

(left) and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. Albert Eckhout (Dutch, ca.1610-1666) Tarairiu Woman and Tarairiu Man, 1641, over 8 ft tall, oil on canvas, National Museum of Denmark


Additional journal

Frederick Catherwood and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. (English, 1799-1854), 1844, lithograph, Classic Maya ruins at Copán, Honduras, Stele D (435-822 CE), depicting ruler, Eighteen RabbitCatherwood was accompanied by the US writer and patron, John Stephens. Stephens asserted that the ancient Maya were the ancestors of the living Maya, a theory disputed at the time.

Photograph showing detail

of portrait stele


Additional journal

Frederick Catherwood and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. (English, 1799-1854), 1844, Maya, Cenote of Bolenchen, Yucatan, Mexico, lithograph plate from Views of Ancient Monuments in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan, 1844, Royal Institute of British Architects, London. Catherwood’s books were best sellers in Europe.


Main temple at tulum by catherwood from views of ancient monuments 1844
Main temple at Tulum and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , by Catherwood, from Views of Ancient Monuments, 1844


Additional journal

Johann Rugendas and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. (German, 1802-1858) (right) Study of Palm Trees, c. 1831, oil sketch; (left) Costumes in Rio, 1823; (center) Slave Hunter, 1824

From Voyage Pittoresque dans le Brésil (Picturesque Voyage to Brazil), with more than 100 illustrations, still one of the most important documents about 19th-century Brazil.


Johann rugendas indians on a farm 1824
Johann Rugendas and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Indians on a Farm, 1824


Additional journal

( and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. left) Joseph Skinner (British), 2 plates from The Present State of Peru, London, 1805. Costume is invented by the artist(right) Carl Nebel (German) Indian Charcoal-Makers, watercolor reproduced as lithograph in Voyage Picturesque and Archeological in the Most Interesting Parts of Mexico, Paris, 1836

2005 facsimile of Skinner’s 1805

book available through Amazon.com


Additional journal

Carl Nebel and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. (German) watercolor, 1829-1834, reproduced as a lithograph in Voyage Picturesque and Archeological in the Most Interesting Parts of Mexico, Paris, 1836


Additional journal

Edouard Pingret and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. (French, 1788-1875), (left) Indian, oil on canvas, after 1857; (right) Waterseller, c. after 1857, o/c, 23” HFrom 1850 to 1855 Pingret lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Costumbrismo

Catalogue of Pingret’s

costumbrismo paintings


Additional journal

(left) and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. Claudio Gay (French) Costumes of Country People, Physical and Political Historical Atlas of Chile, Paris, 1854(right) Juan Manuel Blanes (Uruguayan), Dusk, n.d., oil on cardboard, 9 ½ “ H


Additional journal

Carmelo Fernandez and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , (left) Mestizo Farmers of Anis, Ocana Province(right) Notables of the Capital, Santander Province, Colombia , Colombia, 1850-9, watercolor, National Library, Bogota


Christiano junior cartes de visite 1860s rio de janeiro detail on right
Christiano Junior and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Cartes de visite, 1860s, Rio de Janeiro; detail on right


Anonymous women of lima n d photograph lima
Anonymous and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Women of Lima, n.d., photograph, Lima


Jos mar a velasco mexican 1840 1912
José María Velasco (Mexican,1840-1912 and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. )


Additional journal
José María Velasco and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Templo de San Bernardo (San Bernardo Church), 1861oil on paper mounted on canvas, 13 X 17 ½ inches

Velasco, in the context of the buildings section of his class in landscape painting, as a student at the Academy San Carlos in Mexico City, shows how, with the pretext of progress and modernization, the monasteries were destroyed to "straighten out" the contours of the city. Modernization of Mexico is documented in Velasco’s oeuvre with obvious ambiguity.


Additional journal

(right) and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. José Maria Velasco, Valley of Oaxaca, 1888, oil on canvas, 42 x 63” (left) Claude Lorraine (French, 1604-1682), Pastoral Landscape 1638


Additional journal

Velasco and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Metlac Ravine, Viewed from near the Station in Fortin, 1897, o/c, 41” h(right) anonymous photograph of Metlac ravine, 1910Modernization of Mexico


Additional journal

José Maria Velasco and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. , Valley of Mexico from the Hill of Santa Isabel, 1877, o/c, 5’3”x7’6”(right) Thomas Cole (English-American, 1801-1848, Hudson River School) View from Mt. Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm (The Oxbow), 1836


Jos guadalupe posada mexican printmaker and graphic satirist 1852 1913
José Guadalupe Posada and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. (Mexican printmaker and graphic satirist,1852-1913)


Additional journal

(left) and mestiza, quadroon," bottom, "from quadroon and mestiza, coyote." Identifications varied in different sets of "caste paintings." Some, for instance, defined a "coyote" as an Indian and white mix without any African. José GuadalupePosada (Mexican, 1852-1913), Artists’ Purgatory (right) J.J.Grandville (Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard, French, 1803-1847) Chamber of Deputies, 1867, engraving


Additional journal

In 1900 Maucci Brothers, a Spanish publisher, commissioned Posada to illustrate a series of pamphlets for children on the history of Mexico. Each pamphlet measuring 4 3/4 x 3 1/4 in. is approximately 16 pages. The cover illustrations are probably the only mechanically produced chromolithographs that Posada ever did. Jean Charlot collection, University of Hawaii


Jos guadalupe posada calavera of the newspapers 1889 95 type metal engraving moma nyc
José Guadalupe Posada Posada to illustrate a series of pamphlets for children on the history of Mexico. Each pamphlet measuring 4 3/4 x 3 1/4 in. is approximately 16 pages. The cover illustrations are probably the only mechanically produced chromolithographs that Posada ever did. Jean Charlot collection, University of Hawaii, Calavera of the Newspapers, 1889-95type metal engraving, MoMA NYC


Additional journal

Jose Posada Posada to illustrate a series of pamphlets for children on the history of Mexico. Each pamphlet measuring 4 3/4 x 3 1/4 in. is approximately 16 pages. The cover illustrations are probably the only mechanically produced chromolithographs that Posada ever did. Jean Charlot collection, University of Hawaii, Streets of the City of Mexico on the Morning of 9 February 1913, n.d., zinc engraving. (right) Skeletons at a fractional price as never seen before in all of the Capital.Broadsides, calaveras and corridos were sold at street corners to a largely illiterate audience.