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Imam An- Nawawi’s Forty. – Hadith Two–. – The Hadith of Jibreel –. – The Hadith of Jibreel –.

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imam an nawawi s forty

Imam An-Nawawi’s Forty

–Hadith Two–

the hadith of jibreel1
– The Hadith of Jibreel –
  • Umaribn al-Khattab, relates: While we were sitting with Allah's Messenger (saw) a man approached us. He had exceedingly white clothes and exceedingly black hair. No sign of travel could be seen upon him, yet none of us knew him. He sat before the Prophet (saw) placing his knees before his knees and his hands on his thighs and said: "O Muhammad! Tell me about Islam.”
the hadith of jibreel2
– The Hadith of Jibreel –
  • Allah's Messenger (saw) replied: "Islam is to bear witness that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to establish prayer, to pay charity, to fast the month of Ramadan, and to perform pilgrimage to the House if you are able to make the journey."He said: "You have spoken the truth." We were startled that he would ask and then confirm it like that. Then he said: "Tell me aboutIman."
the hadith of jibreel3
– The Hadith of Jibreel –
  • Allah's Messenger (saw) replied: "It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His Messengers, the Last Day, and divine decree, both the good and bad of it."He said: "You have spoken the truth. Tell me about excellence in faith."He replied: "It is to worship Allah as though you see Him, and though you do not see Him, you know that He sees you."He said: "You have spoken the truth. Tell me about the hour."
the hadith of jibreel4
– The Hadith of Jibreel –
  • Allah's Messenger (saw) replied: "The one being asked knows no more than the one who is asking."He said: "Then tell me about its signs."He replied: "Its signs are that a slave will give birth to her master and that the barefoot, destitute herdsmen shall compete with one another in erecting lofty buildings."Then that man departed and the Prophet (saw) waited for a while. Then he asked me: "O `Umar, do you know who that questioner was?I replied: "Allah and His Messenger know best."He said: "That was Jibreel who came to you to teach you your religion." [Sahih Muslim]
the relationship between islam and iman
The relationship betweenIslam andIman
  • In this hadith, the Prophet (saw) defines Islam with outward statements and actions and definesIman as inner beliefs. This indicates that all of the outward actions that we as Muslims are obliged to perform come under the name of Islam. This would include our ablutions, our lesser pilgrimages to Mecca, and all other acts of devotion. The five pillars of faith are mentioned by way of example, since they are the foundation of a Muslim's obligations.
  • There are many other hadith that emphasize the point that all of our outward devotions are part of Islam. For example, the Prophet (saw) was once asked, "What aspect of Islam is the best?" To this the Prophet (saw)replied: "To feed those in need and to greet with peace people you know as well as people you do not know." [Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim]
the relationship between islam and iman1
The relationship between Islam and Iman
  • As for faith, the Prophet (saw) describes it here with inner beliefs. However, we know that our outward statements and actions are also part of our belief. Allah says: "The believers are only those who when Allah's name is mentioned their hearts are filled with awe, and when His signs are rehearsed to them, their faith increases and upon their Lord they rely. Who establish prayer and spend of what We provide for them. These are the believers truly. They have levels of honor with their Lord and forgiveness and a goodly provision." [Surah al-Anfal: 2-4]
the relationship between islam and iman2
The relationship between Islam and Iman
  • The Prophet (saw) was asked, "What is Islam?” The Prophet (saw) answered, "To submit your heart to Allah and for the people to be safe from your tongue and your hand.”

Then he was asked: "And which Islam is best?" The Prophet (saw) replied, ”Iman.”

Then he was asked: "So what isIman?” The Prophet (saw) replied: "To believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His Messengers, and resurrection after death.”

Then he was asked: "Which deeds are best?” The Prophet replied: "Emigration.”

Then he was asked: "What is emigration.” The Prophet replied: "To part with evil.”

He was then asked: "So which emigration is best?” The Prophet (saw) replied: "Striving in Allah's cause."[ MusnadAhmad]

the five pillars of islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • The Prophet (saw) said: "Islam is built upon five things: the testimony that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, the establishment of prayer, the payment of Zakat, the pilgrimage to the House, and the fast during the month of Ramadan." [Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim]
  • In this hadith, Islam is likened to a building or an edifice having five pillars. These pillars are the supports needed for the building to be able to stand. If these supports are missing, the building will come crashing down. As for other aspects of Islam, their absence will be a deficiency in the overall building, but the structure will still stand.
  • This hadith implies that acceptance of these pillars is necessary for a person's Islam to be intact. If a person denies the validity or obligatory nature of any one of them, he ceases to be a Muslim. This is quite easy to understand with respect to the first pillar, which is the verbal profession of faith.
the five pillars of islam1
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Once, a man from central Arabia with disheveled hair approached the Prophet (saw) and asked him about Islam. The Prophet (saw) said to him: "There are five prayers to be offered in the day and the night."The man asked: "Do I have to offer any others?"The Prophet (saw) replied: "No, unless you do so voluntarily." Then he continued: "You must fast the month of Ramadan."The man asked: "Do I have to offer any other fasts?"The Prophet (saw) replied: "No, unless you do so voluntarily." Then the Prophet (saw) informed him about Zakat, and he asked: "Do I have to pay anything else?"The Prophet (saw) replied: "No, unless you do so voluntarily."The man then turned away saying: "By Allah, I will do nothing extra for these things nor do any less than I have to."At this, Allah's Messenger (saw) remarked: "He will attain success if he proves truthful." [Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim]
  • The meaning of the testimony of faith can be explained by analyzing the statements it contains. It begins with the declaration: "There is no deity or anything worthy of worship…" This is a negation of polytheism and negation of anything at all. It is a denial of anything in existence being worthy of our worship. Then we continue with "…except Allah." This is an affirmation of monotheism: that Allah Alone is the only one worthy of worship.
  • Then we say: "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah". This is the second part of the testimony of faith. It is an affirmation of theProphethoodof Muhammad (saw) as the final Prophet and Messenger of Allah. This requires by implication our acceptance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
  • By believing and then professing the testimony of faith, a Muslim rejects all false objects of worship and asserts that Allah is the only one to be worshipped.
  • As for the importance of prayer, the Prophet (saw) said: "Prayer is what separates a man from disbelief and polytheism." [Sahih Muslim]
  • It is required for every Muslim to perform five obligatory prayers a day. A Muslim turns toward Mecca when performing these prayers, facing the first house ever built for the worship of Allah, the Ka`bah, erected by Ibrahim (as) and his son Ishmael (as). Allah says: "And remember Abraham and Ishmael raised the foundations of the House and said: "Our Lord, accept this from us, verily You are the All-Hearing, All-Knowing." [Surah al-Baqarah: 127]
  • We perform these prayers throughout the day and night, and they are a constant reminder of a Muslim's duty to Allah. Prayer keeps us away from sin. Allah says: "Establish prayer, for verily prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds." [Surah al-`Ankabut: 45]
  • Allah mentions prayer and charity together in the Qur'an: "Establish prayer and pay Zakat" [Surah al-Baqarah: 43] He says: "And they were but commanded to worship Allah sincerely and exclusively with purity of faith; to establish prayer and pay Zakat. This is the correct religion." [Surah al-Bayyinah: 5]
  • After the Prophet (saw) died and Abu Bakr had assumed leadership, some of the Arabs rejected Islam. `Umar asked `Abu Bakr: "How are you going to go to war against these people when Allah's Messenger said: 'I am commanded to fight them until they say 'There is no God but Allah', and if they do so, they have safeguarded their wealth and their lives except in the dispensation of justice, and their affair is with Allah.'?”
  • Abu Bakr replied: "I will fight those who differentiate between prayer and Zakat, for Zakat is a right against wealth. By Allah, if they refuse to give me a camel hobble that they used to give to Allah's Messenger (saw)I will fight them for it." [Sahih al-Bukhari]
  • As for fasting during the month of Ramadan, it is prescribed in the following verse: "O you who believe, fasting is prescribed for you as it is prescribed for those who came before you, that perchance you might fear Allah." [Surah al-Baqarah: 183]
  • Allah informs us as to why the fast takes place during the month of Ramadan when He says: "Ramadan is the month in which the Qur'an was sent down as a guide to humanity and as clear signs for guidance and judgment. So whoever among you witnesses this month should spend it in fasting." [Surah al-Baqarah: 185]
  • Pilgrimage becomes an obligation on those who have the ability to undertake it. Allah says: "And pilgrimage to the House is a duty that the people owe to Allah, whoever among them is able to make the journey. And whoever disbelieves, then truly Allah stands not in need of Creation." [Surah Al `Imran: 97]
the six articles of iman
The Six Articles of Iman
  • Allah says: “Righteousness is of one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the Prophets.” [Surah al-Baqarah: 177]
  • Allah says: “The Messenger believes in what is revealed to him from his Lord as do the believers. All of them believe in Allah, His angels, His books, and His Messengers. They say: ‘We make no distinction between any of the Messengers.’ They say: ‘We hear and we obey. Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the final destination’.” [Surah al-Baqarah: 285]
the first article belief in allah
The First Article–Belief in Allah–

1. The Oneness of Allah in His Lordship: We must believe that Allah alone is the Creator of all things and He alone causes everything to happen. No one shares in His power. Nothing can go against Him and nothing can resist His decree.2. The devotion of all worship to Allah alone: This is the core belief of Islam. This was the Message proclaimed by all the Prophets and Messengers of Islam sent by Allah throughout the ages. They came with the purpose of calling people away from the worship of creation and to direct them toward the worship of the Creator only. Allah says: “We had not sent a Messenger before you (O Muhammad) except that we revealed to him that there is no God but Me so worship Me.” [Surah al-Anbiya’: 25]Allah informs us that the sole purpose of the creation of humanity is to worship Him alone. Allah says: “I did not create humanity and the Jinn except to worship Me.” [Surah al-Dhariyat : 56]3. The uniqueness of Allah in His names and attributes: It is incumbent upon us as Muslims to believe in all the names and attributes of Allah that Allah ascribes to Himself in the Qur’an and that His Messenger (saw) ascribes to Him in the Sunnah. Likewise, it is forbidden for us as Muslims to ascribe to Allah any attributes that Allah and His Messenger (saw) do not inform us about. We do not ascribe to Allah the attributes of created things nor do we liken His attributes to those of created things. We accept with full belief and conviction what Allah tells us about Himself.

the second article belief in the angels
The Second Article– Belief in the Angels –
  • A Muslim must believe in the existence of angels. They are creations of Allah who are powerful and always do precisely as Allah commands them. Allah has revealed to us the names and the duties of some of the angels. Jibreel and Michael are among the angels mentioned in the Qur’an. For instance, it is among Jibreel’s duties to take Allah’s Revelation to the Prophets and Messengers (peace be upon them).
the third article belief in the books
The Third Article– Belief in the Books –
  • A Muslim must believe in every scripture mentioned by Allah in the Qur’an. The scriptures that Allah mentions in the Qur’an are as follows:1. The Scrolls that were revealed to Abraham (as)2. The Torah that was revealed to Moses (as)3. The Psalms that were revealed to David (as)4. The Gospel that was revealed to Jesus (as)5. The Qur’an that was revealed to Muhammad (saw) and which has been preserved to this day in its original form.
the third article belief in the books1
The Third Article– Belief in the Books –
  • Muslims do not consider the Bible that is presently in circulation in various editions and versions to be an accurate representation of the older scriptures that were revealed before the Qur’an. Allah did not attend to preserving the previously revealed books from corruption and substitution. Instead, He left their preservation to those upon whom He sent the books. Allah says: “Verily we sent down the Torah containing guidance and light, by which the Prophets who submitted themselves to Allah’s will would judge the Jews. Likewise judged the priests and the rabbis, for they were entrusted with preserving the Book of Allah.” [Surah al-Ma`idah; 44]For this reason, these books were not spared from corruption and substitution, as is clearly stated in the Qur’an. Moreover, many of the followers and scholars of the other religions admit that their books have been tampered with.
  • As for the Qur’an, Allah has taken its preservation upon Himself. Allah says: “Verily we have sent down the remembrance, and verily we are its preservers.” [Al-Hijr; :9]
the third article belief in the books2
The Third Article– Belief in the Books –
  • What remains of the previous scriptures is a mixture of truth and falsehood. The contents of those scriptures can be broken down into three categories:
  • The first category is that of matters the Qur’an and Sunnah have confirmed. We consequently believe in them and affirm their authenticity.
  • The second category includes all those matters that contradict the teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah. In these instances, we are certain of the inauthenticity of these matters and reject them.
  • The third category comprises those matters that the Qur’an and Sunnah neither affirm nor deny. Our position with respect to these matters is a non-committal one; we neither believe in them nor disbelieve. Allah’s Messenger (saw ) said: “If the People of the Scripture relate something to you, neither believe them nor reject what they say.”
the fourth article belief in the messengers
The Fourth Article– Belief in the Messengers –
  • A Muslim must believe in all of the Prophets and Messengers Sent by Allah to humanity. The Prophets, from Adam to Muhammad (peace be upon them), were all brothers in faith. They all called people to the same truth. Different Messengers came with different sets of laws that God Sent through them to guide and govern the people, but the essence of their teachings was the same. They all called people away from the worship of created things to the worship of the Creator.
  • Allah says: “We had sent to every nation a messenger telling them to worship Allah and to avoid false gods.” [Surah al-Nahl: 36]
  • Muslims are required to love and respect all of the Prophets and Messengers (as). If a person rejects or dislikes any one of them, that person is not a believer.
the fifth article belief in the last day
The Fifth Article– Belief in the Last Day –
  • All Muslims must believe, without doubt, that this present world will come to an end and then we will be resurrected to stand in judgment before our Lord and receive our recompense. It has been called the “Last Day” because there is no day after it, for the people of Paradise will go to their abode and the people of the Hellfire will go to theirs. From that day forth, our existence will be eternal. Allah says: “Then verily after that you will die. Then on the Day of Judgment you will be resurrected.” [Surah al-Mu’minun: 15-16]He says: “We will set down the scales of justice for the Day of Judgment so no soul will be wronged. Even if it has the weight of a mustard seed, we shall bring it to account, and Allah is sufficient to take account.” [Surah al-Anbiya’: 47]
the sixth article belief in divine decree
The Sixth Article– Belief in Divine Decree –
  • According to the works of Ibn Rajab, there are two levels to our belief in divine decree:
  • The first is to believe that Allah’s knowledge encompasses all that has ever happened and all that ever will happen. Allah knows who will obey Him and who will disobey and who is destined for Paradise and who is destined for Hell.
  • The second level is belief that Allah created every action of His servants. He created every act of obedience and their disobedience that we perform. Allah says: “Allah created you and what you do.” [Surah al-Saffat: 96]
the sixth article belief in divine decree1
The Sixth Article– Belief in Divine Decree –
  • At the same time, we are obliged to believe in the free will of the human being. This does not in any way contradict the fact that Allah knows everything that will ever occur in creation. Someone might allege: “If Allah knows that I am going to commit a sin tomorrow, then it is unavoidable that I do so because Allah’s knowledge is infallible and what Allah knows to come to pass must in fact come to pass. Therefore, I have no free will. My free will is but an illusion.”
the sixth article belief in divine decree2
The Sixth Article– Belief in Divine Decree –
  • The answer to this contention is that Allah created within each of us the ability to formulate an intention. Allah wants us to be able to make our own choices. When a person makes a choice, Allah creates the actions and circumstances that allow the person’s intention to be carried out. Allah creates our actions, but He does not dictate those actions to us.
  • It is Allah’s Will that human beings have free will. Allah is not always pleased with the decisions we make, but He wants us to be able to make these decisions of our own free choice. We will be rewarded or punished on account of the choices that we make. Allah knows what decisions we will make throughout our lives of our own free will. This does not mean that Allah is forcing our hands.
  • We must understand that we cannot compare Allah’s knowledge to our own. His knowledge is unlimited. It is unconstrained by the limits of time the way our knowledge is constrained. Allah has knowledge of what we are going to decide tomorrow because His knowledge is unlimited and unconstrained, not because we are compelled in our actions and have no choice.
  • Allah says: “There is no sin upon those who believe and work righteousness for what they have eaten in the past if they now fear Allah, believe, and work righteousness, and then fear Allah and believe, and then fear Allah and work excellence (ihsan), and Allah loves those who work excellence.” [Surah al-Ma’idah: 93]
the unseen
The Unseen
  • When the angel Jibreel asked the Prophet (saw) about the Hour, the Prophet (saw) replied: “The one being asked knows no more than the one who is asking.” This answer shows us how we must deal with the Unseen. The Prophet (saw) was not trying to say that his knowledge was equal to that of the questioner. He was, instead, making it clear that no one knows about this matter except for Allah.The Hour is part of the knowledge of the Unseen. We only know about the Unseen what Allah and His Messenger (saw) tell us. This means we only know what we read about these matters in the Qur’an and Sunnah.
the unseen1
The Unseen
  • The Unseen, more broadly, can be defined as everything that cannot be perceived by man’s senses. The Unseen includes those things that remain secret from man and are only known by Allah the All-Aware, as well as those things that man has knowledge of due to his being informed of them by Allah and His Messenger (saw).
  • It is unlawful for Muslims to speculate about matters of the Unseen. To do so is to speak about matters of which Allah has kept knowledge thereof to Himself. We only know of these matters what Allah has revealed to us about them in the Qur’an and what the Prophet (saw) has informed us about
  • Moreover, Allah will call us to account for speaking without knowledge. Allah says: “And do not Pursue that of which you have no knowledge. Verily, every act of hearing, of seeing, or of feeling in the heart will be enquired into.” [Surah al-Isra’: 36]
classifying the unseen
Classifying The Unseen
  • 1.Matters that are absolutely and categorically unseen: These are matters that man has no way of perceiving by way of his intellect or his senses.
  • This includes the Knowledge of the when the world will come to an end, the knowledge of when, where, and how a person is to die, and some of the names that Allah has given to Himself.

Allah says: “Verily Allah has knowledge of the Hour. He sends down the rains. He knows what is in the wombs, and no soul knows what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul knows in which land it will die.” [SurahLuqman: 34]Allah’s Messenger (saw) has said: “Oh Allah, I beseech you with every name that you have; those that you have given yourself, those that you have taught to some of your Creation, and those that you have kept to yourself the knowledge thereof.”

classifying the unseen1
Classifying The Unseen
  • 2.Events of the past: These matters are part of the Unseen for some people but not for others. They are Unseen with respect to those who did not witness them or obtain empirical evidence for their occurrence in the past.

For this reason, Allah said to the Prophet (saw) after relating to him the story of the family of `Imran: “This is from the news of the Unseen that We reveal to you. You were not with them when they cast lots as to which of them will be the guardian of Maryam, nor were you with them when they disputed.” [Surah Al `Imran: 44]

classifying the unseen2
Classifying The Unseen
  • 3. Events of the future: These are matters that will remain part of the Unseen until they actually occur. Knowledge of the time of the Hour falls under this category. Not even the Prophet Muhammad (saw) nor the angels know when the Hour will be. However, when the Hour arrives it will be known by all. Knowledge of the Signs of the Hour is likewise part of the Unseen. Some of this knowledge has been revealed to us.
signs of the hour
Signs of the Hour
  • The first of these is that a slave will give birth to her master. This could mean many things and we cannot be certain exactly which of the possible meanings is intended. Many interpretations have been offered. All that we can be sure of is that near the end of time, affairs will not be as they are supposed to be. For example, some mothers will be in a compromised position with respect to their children. Though mothers are deserving of respect, reverence, and good treatment, their children will – either literally or figuratively – be treating them like slaves.
signs of the hour1
Signs of the Hour
  • The second sign mentioned is that barefoot, destitute herdsmen shall compete with one another in erecting lofty buildings. This also opens itself to numerous interpretations. All we can know for sure is that, again, affairs will be the opposite of what they are supposed to be. Those who are ignorant, unqualified, and undeserving shall enjoy positions of wealth and power that they shall misuse in pursuit of vanity.