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Increasing Expectations. Migrant Education Training. Expectations……. Students will live up or down the expectations that are set for them. “I’m surprised these are really smart kids.”- Former Migrant Teacher. What is a migrant?. Less than 36 months Moved here to work in agriculture

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increasing expectations

Increasing Expectations

Migrant Education Training

  • Students will live up or down the expectations that are set for them.
  • “I’m surprised these are really smart kids.”- Former Migrant Teacher
what is a migrant
What is a migrant?
  • Less than 36 months
  • Moved here to work in agriculture
  • Between ages of 3-21
  • From any country or place
  • What language do they speak?
what is a migrant to me
What is a migrant to me?
  • Hard worker
  • Resilient
  • Wealth of experiences
  • Observer
  • Same
  • Face Challenges but are not a challenge themselves
  • Realists
  • Asset
expectations expect to
Expectations…EXPECT TO…
  • Work like crazy
  • Fall in love with your students
  • Be challenged daily by your students
  • Find this harder than teaching during the regular day
  • Find that you can’t “wing it”
  • Find that we expect your best
  • find out the difference one can make in the life of a student is HUGE
why does migrant ed exist
Why does Migrant Ed exist?
  • Mobility of students
  • Lack of National Curricululm
  • Students get lost through the cracks
  • Come and are gone
  • 1 in every two students drops out

Goal is graduation for every migrant student

Compete on the level of their peers

Fill in the gaps

what is your role
What is your role?
  • Be resourceful
  • Be prepared
  • Be creative
  • Provide hands on- real life activities that will challenge your students
  • Immerse yourself in the program
  • Identify needs of each student
  • Work to meet those needs
what do you bring to the table
What do you bring to the table?
  • Experience
  • Language
  • Work Ethic
  • Skills
  • Desire to teach
what do your students bring
What do your students bring?
  • Experience
  • Work ethic
  • Skills
  • Resiliance
  • Hope
  • Desire to learn
  • Language
realities of the migrant program
Realities of the Migrant Program
  • Limited resources
  • Everyday is not mapped out for you
  • Program requirements can be cumbersome
  • The program will only be as good as you make it
  • Make lesson plans
  • Prepare thoroughly
  • Work to identify needs
  • Keep your attendance up
  • Provide hands on fun instruction
  • Reach to meet the needs of each student
  • Get out of your teaching comfort zone and try a few new things.
back to the basics
Back to the Basics
  • Reading
  • Math
  • Science
  • Arts
  • Grade Level Standards Skills
  • Standards Checklists
  • Academic Vocabulary lists
  • Frequency Vocabulary Lists
it must be fun
IT MUST BE FUN!!!!!!!!!!
  • Hands on
  • Creative
  • Engaging
what can you come up with
What can you come up with?
  • Standards based
  • Grade Level Appropriate
  • Might have a classroom of

multiple grades

  • Hands On
  • ELL students will understand
  • Several subjects
  • Reading, Math, Science, Arts
let me read you a book
Let me read you a book…
  • Tell me what is this book about?
  • What is the plot?
  • Please retell the sequence of events that happens in the story.
  • Also write every noun you hear me say.
  • Share your favorite part.
reading and writing
Reading and Writing
  • Our students become better readers and writers….
  • by hearing good models of reading through teacher read-alouds. Let the best reader in the room transport them, entertain them, instruct them.
  • by having ample opportunities for independent reading—these are jewel-like moments.
  • by the teacher’s scaffolding of challenging print and modeling the strategies that good readers use.
  • by learning about the details of print as needed (sound-letter correspondences, features of genres,
  • conventions of print).
  • by writing every day for a variety of purposes in a variety of genres.
  • by learning how to self-edit and revise (it’s not a final draft until the teacher says it’s done!).
  • by taking written pieces as far as each student is able.
good ideas we ve always know about
Good ideas we’ve always know about
  • Teacher read-alouds with strategy modeling
  • Language Experience Approach for beginning ELs
  • Readers’ workshop/Lit circles/and an occasional core piece, scaffolded for everyone
  • Sustained Silent Reading on a regular basis
language experience approach
Language Experience Approach
  • Developed by Roach Van Allen 40 years ago
  • –Teacher and students discuss the stimulus or topic or experience. Oral language is developed.
  • –Students dictate sentences relating to the topic or experience.
  • –The teacher records the dictation on chart paper, expanding the discourse into standard form without changing the content. If a beginning English learner says, “We go liberry,” the teacher can embroider (not overtly correct) the student’s contribution, “That’s right. We went to the library!” and proceed to write it in that manner.
  • –The recorder then reads the whole story aloud several times, tracking the text with a hand.
  • –Students then are asked to read along chorally several times.
  • –By this point in the Language Experience, some students will be ready to volunteer as the teacher (or other person) asks questions such as, “Who can show me the word____?” Graphophonic elements can be pointed out at this time, “Who can show me the word that starts with the ch- sound?”
learning proceeds from whole to part
Learning proceeds from whole to part
  • The brain likes the details but wants them later.
  • It needs the whole picture first.
read when your students read
Read when your students read
  • Let children pick their own books
  • Use RIF books
  • Add some sort of share at the end of free reading time
why should you read aloud to your students
Why should you read aloud to your students?
  • You are the best model of good reading in the classroom.
  • You can take them to print that’s beyond their present level of understanding. You can immerse your students in a model of standard language, with all the rhythms and intonations that constitute good reading. You can build their vocabulary. You can pause to overtly model reading strategies. You can show them that reading is meant to be joyful, interesting, and not just a struggle.
ideas for your read aloud sessions
Ideas for your read-aloud sessions

· Read aloud from various genres: fiction, nonfiction, poetry, informational text.

  • · At times, choose texts that are generally more difficult than those the students could read on their own.
  • · Read-aloud sessions should be kept to 20 minutes or less, unless they are highly interactive, punctuated with questions, quickwrite prompts, other extension activities.
  • · Pre-read or scan the piece before beginning the read-aloud in order to plan for pauses, questions, and vocabulary work.
  • · Don’t read the whole piece. You can skip passages, even entire chapters, and still maintain the integrity of the piece.
good readers monitor comprehension
Good readers monitor comprehension
  • Some hints for better monitoring of comprehension:
  • Pause to think about what you have read.
  • Reflect in writing about what you have read.
  • Visualize. Make a mental picture of what’s presented in the text.
  • Retell what you have read.
  • Reread.
use prior knowledge to make sense of text
Use prior knowledge to make sense of text
  • Our existing mental constructions can give us hooks upon which to hang new information. Schema can include knowledge about the topic, setting, and situations. Schema can include prior understanding of the genre or the text structure, or of the author.
  • Ask students to think about what they know about the topic/theme.
  • Invite them to think about their personal experiences, about other books they have read. Ask, “What does this piece remind you of?” Many teachers use a T-chart to facilitate this as students practice the process: on one side, “Passage that reminded me of something,” on the other side, “What it reminded me of.”
good readers ask questions about text
Good readers ask questions about text
  • This strategy relates directly to monitoring comprehension.
  • Good readers ask questions before they begin to read (”I wonder what this is about? Hmm…I’ll look at the title…I’ll skim the table of contents…I’ll think back to my teacher’s introduction.”)
  • They ask questions while they read. (”I wonder what will happen next? Hmm…Did the butler do it?…Will the author come right out and tell me or will I have to guess?”
  • They ask questions when they’re done reading. (”I wonder what the characters will do next? Hmm…I wonder what the author expects me to take away from this?”
good readers create sensory images
Good readers create sensory images
  • Good readers project images on an internal screen. These images change, intensify, and are clarified throughout the reading. All senses can be involved.
  • Many of our students seem to lack this internal screen–perhaps as a result of visual input always having an external source in their lives (TV, video games).
  • The teacher can invite students to describe their internal pictures—this sharing can help others with
good readers notice what is important
Good readers notice what is important
  • Good readers can spot words, sentences, and paragraphs or passages that are essential to meaning and can weed out words, sentences, and paragraphs or passages that don’t deserve or require too much attention. Good readers can spot important themes, symbols, and recurring elements that signal an important message from the author.
  • Many underprepared readers think that their job is to read every single word.
reading repair strategies
Reading repair strategies
  • Sometimes called a “fix-up strategy,” reading repair includes any strategy used by a reader to help get clear when the text becomes confusing.
  • Some repair strategies include: skipping ahead; re-reading; drawing from context (”What would make sense here?”); sounding out challenging words; looking for familiar morphemes within challenging words; seeking help from other readers, from the teachers, and even from reference materials.
scaffolding core literature
Scaffolding Core Literature
  • 1. Pre-reading activities: brainstorm (map/web); visual; text tour; advanced organizer (hints to tantalize); visualization; key vocabulary preview; anticipation guide, people hunt, video snippet, etc. Do your students lack understanding of a key concept or of a geographical or historical setting that is key to understanding the piece? We sometimes need to provide prior knowledge, not just tap it.
  • 2. Teacher read-alouds: you are the best source of comprehensible print and the most adept model of good reading strategies. Helpful: be metacognitive as you read aloud. Model the strategies that good readers bring to challenging prose, e.g. prediction, good guesses about tough words.
scaffolding core literature1
Scaffolding Core Literature
  • 3. Partner reading: student-student; teacher-individual student; aide-student; shoulder to shoulder; help offered only when requested; modified Reciprocal Teaching: partners or triads read, question, seek clarification, summarize, and predict.
  • 4. Audiovisual support: video version, shown in segments, not all at once; audiotape or CD for listening center (caveat: often the published recorded books are read too speedily for our ELs. Can you or a volunteer re-record some of the piece at a more deliberate pace?)
do we need to read everything
Do we need to read everything?
  • Choose the most essential, pivotal, memorable sections for students to read and/or for you to read aloud.
  • · If the piece has a good film version, notice that the story held up in its transfer to film, even though much was omitted. Perhaps the passages that you and your students read could correspond to the filmmaker’s choices.
  • · Perhaps you might choose passages that lend themselves to meeting an English Language Arts Standard.
  • · How might/do you share the plot with your students without having them read the whole piece? Discussion, predictions, video, your own excellent story-telling skills.
ell language strategies
ELL language Strategies
  • "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." Stephen Krashen
ell theory
ELL Theory
  • "The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations, containing messages that students really want to hear. These methods do not force early production in the second language, but allow students to produce when they are 'ready', recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input, and not from forcing and correcting production." Stephen Krashen
krashen theory of second language acquisition
Krashen Theory of Second Language Acquisition
  • 2 learned systems- acquired/learned
  • Monitor hypothesis- practical result of learned grammar
  • Natural order
  • Input hypothesis
  • Affective Filter
4 key principles
4 Key principles
  • Increase Comprehensibility: Drawing from Krashen’s theory of comprehensible input, this principle involves the ways in which teachers can make content more understandable to their students. With early to intermediate language learners, these include providing many nonverbal clues such as pictures, objects, demonstrations, gestures, and intonation cues. As competency develops, other strategies include building from language that is already understood, using graphic organizers, hands-on learning opportunities, and cooperative or peer tutoring techniques.
4 key principles1
4 Key Principles
  • Increase Interaction: Drawing from Swain’s emphasis on comprehensible output, a number of strategies have been developed that increase students’ opportunities to use their language skills in direct communication and for the purpose of "negotiating meaning" in real-life situations. These include cooperative learning, study buddies, project-based learning, and one-to-one teacher/student interactions.
4 key principles2
4 Key Principles
  • Increase Thinking/Study Skills: Drawing from Cummins’s theories of academic language and cognitively demanding communication, these strategies suggest ways to develop more advanced, higher order thinking skills as a student’s competency increases. Chamot and O’Malley (1994) developed the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) mentioned above to bridge the gap between Cummins’s theories and actual classroom strategies. These include asking students higher order thinking questions (e.g., what would happen if…?), modeling "thinking language" by thinking aloud, explicitly teaching and reinforcing study skills and test-taking skills, and holding high expectations for all students.
4 key principles3
4 Key Principles
  • Use a student’s native language to increase comprehensibility: Drawing from several different theories, including Krashen and Cummins, this principle also draws on a wealth of current research that has shown the advantage of incorporating a student’s native language into their instruction (Berman, Minicucci, McLaughlin, Nelson, & Woodworth, 1995; Lucas and Katz, 1994; Pease-Alvarez, Garcia & Espinosa, 1991; Thomas & Collier 1997). Thomas and Collier, for example, in their study of school effectiveness for language minority students, note that first-language support "explains the most variance in student achievement and is the most powerful influence on [ELL] students’ long term academic success" (p. 64). As mentioned in our section on instructional methods and models, using a student’s native language as a support can be seen as both a general method or as any of a number of specific strategies. Many of the strategies we list below include, implicitly or explicitly, the use of a student’s native language to increase his or her understanding.
teaching strategies
Teaching Strategies
  • Total Physical Response (TPR)
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Language Experience Approach
  • Dialogue Journals
  • Academic Language Scaffolding
  • Native Language Support
  • Accessing Prior Knowledge
  • Realia
different stages
Different Stages
  • Silent/Receptive or Preproduction
  • Early Production
  • Speech Emergence State
  • Intermediate Language Proficiency
  • Social English vs Academic English
  • WIDA materials
  • Different level learners in the classroom
  • Remember how it feels and what would help you
  • Standards checklists
theme for this year science
Theme for this year- Science

“Science education is intended for all students. Academic instruction must be designed so that each student has the opportunity to master science standards that provide systematic and coherent access to this challenging subject… Instruction for English Language Learners in the academic language of science is critical and must be specifically designed, planned and taught.” California Public Schools

effective science instruction for ells
Effective Science Instruction for ELLS
  • Effective science teachers view their educational practice within the lives of their ELL students
  • Students need discipline-specific and appropriate language
  • Resources are often dedicated to to the earliest stages of language development when the needs are most obvious
social english
Social English
  • Once social English is present, students’ needs for more demanding academic language can be masked by short answers, smiles, nodding heads and barely getting by in academic subjects.
  • They struggle and never thrive…mastery of science in inadequate and leaves them unprepared for higher education
social speaking skills
Social Speaking Skills
  • But they may not have skills to pursuade, debate, or give oral presentations,
  • May have decoding skills but lack comprehension of complex text
  • Get main idea but miss nuances, and technical details
  • Specialized scientific meaning of everyday words goes unperceived
  • Write sentences on a test that doesn’t extend to completing a lab report
2 fundamentals with science instruction for ell s
2 Fundamentals with science instruction for ELL’s
  • Inquiry science shared experiences
  • Arena for students to try out their ideas about scientific phenomena
  • Expressing oneself about something that helps another language adhere to our lives and becomes part of our identity
  • Ex. Student who plans, plants, observes and records growth in her garden in English brings purpose and significance to both life science and all language development skills
2 fundamentals
2 Fundamentals
  • Direct correspondence between the steps in the process of language development and the scientific process
  • Oral and written descriptions of experiments expose students to a sequence of steps different in presentation style than other listening and reading experiences.
questions our students might ask
Questions our students might ask?
  • Does this teacher know who I am?
  • Does this teacher care about me?
  • Does this teacher want me to succeed?
  • Does this teacher realize that I am not intellectually limited even though I cannot express myself completely in English?
questions our students might ask1
Questions our students might ask?
  • Does this teacher understand the fear of ridicule and embarrassment I must overcome every time I open my mouth to speak, to participate in a group, or hand in written work?
  • Does this teacher see me as a potential contributor to scientific knowledge?
science instruction
Science Instruction
  • KNOW
  • SHOW
  • Teachers have to move students from expressing firsthand experience in oral language to those expressing academic knowledge in writing
modifying language hands on clues
Modifying Language- hands on clues
  • Teachers provide clues to modify language of students to help restate words in more academic terms
  • Comprehensible input
  • Students motivated to describe, explain, questions, hypothesize and persuade
  • Science journals/ lab reports
extensive student vocabulary
Extensive student vocabulary
  • Research shows a strong relationship between extensive student vocabulary and over-all academic achievement
  • Students must rely on second language to understand the concepts, generate written explanations of readings, experiments, and observations
  • Higher levels of achievement accompany an ever-expanding vocabulary for EL
frequency words
Frequency Words
  • Teach them within the scientific context
  • Do not teach them as stand alone vocabulary
checks and balances each lesson
Checks and Balances- Each Lesson
  • Did students get it? How do I know?
  • If they didn’t get it what and I going to do?
  • Are the activities equal in rigor and challenges all students?
  • Are strategies provided for scaffolded instruction?
  • Did I capitalize on visual and physical properties of science experiements and demonstrations?
personal experience
Personal Experience
  • Teachers need to engage students in scientific conversation that moves students from personal experience and everyday language to generalizations expressed in discourse patterns specific to discipline.