First People – First Farmers Paleolithic period – humans migrated out of Africa and adapted to new environments Egalitarian societies Developed sophisticated technologies Key Concept 1.1. Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth The term Big Geography draws attention to the global nature of world history. Throughout the Paleolithic period, humans migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. Early humans were mobile and creative in adapting to different geographical settings from savanna to desert to Ice Age tundra. By making an analogy with modern hunterforager societies, anthropologists infer that these bands were relatively egalitarian. Humans also developed varied and sophisticated technologies. What key points should we take from this key concept?
Key Dates 3,500 B.C.E. – 1000 B.C.E – rise of first civilizations
What is meant by the term Civilizations? • New type of civilization made possible by the AR • Large populations • Cities – 10,000 + • State organizes &controls citizens • Economic specialization • Inequality of wealth Describe the differences in control over people in chiefdoms and civilizations.
Origins of Civilizations • Neolithic Revolution (AR) • Irrigation Projects • Attempted order • Protect the elite • Warfare
Rise of the State • Purpose of states • Conflict between peoples • Large scale irrigation • Warfare and protection • Source of Power • China – son of heaven • Stewards of local god • Ability to collect and distribute tribute • Force is possible
Core and Foundational Civilizations Global phenomenon Shang Mesopotamia Olmecs Nile River Valley Indus River Valley Norte Chico Independent, global, 3,500 B.C.E. – 1000 B.C.E.
Civilizations led to inequality • Burial sites and architecture show inequalities • Slavery arises with civilizations • Society becomes patriarchal Laws make distinctions between classes Egyptian man beating a slavewhile another begs for mercy
Legal System • The Code of Hammurabi • Established high standards of behavior and stern punishment for violators • lextalionis–“law of retaliation” • Social status and punishment • women as property, but some rights
Rise of Patriarchal Societies Warfare Plow based agriculture Taming nature More children Property inheritance “Demotion of the Goddess” Continues today What led to the rise of patriarchal societies? Describe rights of Egyptian women What is horticulture?
Writing systems emerge Study the table on page 79 of the textbook. Add three observations to your notebook. Cuneiform Oracle bones
Mesopotamia • 3,000 B.C.E.
Temple • “Mountain of the Gods • 80% Urban Ziggurat at Ur Defensive Walls