CHEN 313: Materials Science and Engineering. Course Objective. Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials S&T. You will learn about:. • material structure. • how structure dictates properties. • how processing can change structure. This course will help you to:.
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Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials S&T
You will learn about:
• material structure
• how structure dictates properties
• how processing can change structure
This course will help you to:
• use materials properly
• realize new design opportunities
Class Notes adapted/prepared by Jorge Seminario (TAMU)
Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering:
An Integrated Approach
W.D. Callister, Jr. and D. G. Rethwisch
John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (2007).
Both book and accompanying CD-ROM are useful.
Homework, quizzes, (INDIVIDUAL)15%
Special assignments (GROUPS) 10%
exam # 1 15%
exam #2 15%
exam #3 15%
Check 2010-2011 Issues of Nature & Science; find the best topic you like
Propose and justify a topic February 7
Instructor will decide topics on Feb 11
First Draft due on February 28
Second Draft due on March 21
Final version due on April 22
Many engineering fields deal with a design problem involving materials sooner or later
For example: transmission gears, superstructure of a building, oil refinery component, electronics, medicine, etc.
However, the problem is selecting the right material from the thousands out there.
dictates the material required properties
Rarely a material possess the maximum or ideal combination of properties
Sacrificing one characteristic for another might be necessary
i.e., strength vs. ductility: the stronger a material the less ductile (malleable)
You could have perfect material, but too costly
Again, some compromise or sacrifice must be made
Cost of finished piece includes fabrication cost
As an engineer, must familiarize yourself with these criteria
Also be comfortable with processing techniques
In conclusion, the more proficient, the more confident you will be in making judgment based on these criteria
Ceramic membrane filter is widely used for filtration in industrial areas of food , beverage, pharmaceutical, chemical, petrochemical and environment-protecting
Ceramic Membrane Elements
Xu J , Song J PNAS 2010;107:7652-7657
Advanced materials include: semiconductors, biomaterials, ‘materials of the future,’ which include materials used in lasers, integrated circuits, magnetic storage, LCD’s, and fiber optics.
Advanced materials are typically utilized in high-tech applications and are typically traditional materials whose properties have been enhanced as well as newly developed, high performance materials.
Semiconductors have electrical properties that are intermediate between the electrical conductors (metals and alloys) and insulators (ceramics and polymers).
The electrical characteristics of these materials are extremely sensitive to the presence of minute concentrations of impurity atoms which may be controlled over very small regions.
Semiconductors have made possible the advent of integrated circuitry that has revolutionized electronics and the computer industry.
Biomaterials are employed in components implanted into the human body for replacement of diseased/damaged body parts
These materials must not produce toxic substances and must be compatible with body tissues.
Metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and semiconductors may all be used as bio materials.
Smart materials are new, state-of-the-art materials for new technologies.
The “smart” implies that these materials are able to sense changes in their environments and then respond to these changes in predetermined manners.
Components of a smart material include a type of sensor (that detects input) and an actuator (that performs a responsive and adaptive function).
Shape-memory – metals that, after being deformed, revert back to their original shape with a temperature change.
Piezoelectric ceramics – expand and contract in response to applied electric fields. They also generate an electric field when deformed.
The ability to carefully arrange atoms from the bottom up allows for the opportunity to develop mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and other properties into materials that are otherwise not possible.
The ‘Nano’ prefix denotes that the dimensions of these entities is on the order of a nanometer, or 10-9 meters.
This is the inside of a carbon nanotube.
Although nuclear energy is promising, reliance on materials will continue
From fuels, to containment structures, to facilities where radioactive waste is disposed
Transportation requires a lot of energy
Materials of high strength low density will reduce weight and enhance machine efficiency
Economical sources of energy are in need
Materials will have significant role in this
i.e. solar cells = convert solar energy into electrical energy but materials are expensive
These must be replaced with high efficient, low cost materials
Hydrogen fuel cell very feasible and attractive
Holds promise in the car industry as a power source
However, before this is made efficient, better materials must be engineered
Producing new materials is great, but must be observed carefully
New materials could be great, but the pollution or waste produced during process needs to be considered
Also, less pollution and spoilage due to less mining of raw materials.
Determine required Properties
Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,
magnetic, optical, deteriorative.
Identify candidate Material(s)
Material: structure, composition.
Identify required Processing
Processing: changes structure and overall shape
ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.
• Use the right material for the job.
• Understand the relation between properties,
structure, and processing.
• Recognize new design opportunities offered
by materials selection.