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Early Middle Ages
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  1. Early Middle Ages The First Medieval Synthesis

  2. Overview • Charlemagne • Post-Charlemagne • Viking Invasions • Feudal Society

  3. Charlemagne

  4. Charlemagne • Cultural Background as a German, Roman, Christian Blend • What is First Synthesis? • Pepin, the Lombards and the Papacy in 756 • Summary p. 144 • Religious Reformer – David and Josias • Pope Leo III and Crowning Emperor

  5. Palace at Aachen • Educational Reform • Alcuin • Monastic schools • Curriculum

  6. Carolingian script (miniscule) • Carolingian Liturgical Reforms • Alcuin’s Revision of Roman Rite • Rebirth of Drama • Attempts to develop vernacular culture • Legends of Charlemagne in Notker and Song of Roland

  7. Bust of Charlemagne, Cathedral Treasury, Aachen. 14th Century

  8. Post-Charlemagne • Louis the Pious, only surviving son of Charlemagne • Louis and monastic reform • Louis’ sons, Louis, Charles, and Lothar, Kings of East Franks, West Franks and Lotharingia • Louis crowned Lothar Emperor in 817 • Thus a divided empire. • Pope Nicholas and Charles the Bald and the role of the Pope

  9. Otto I and the reinstitution of an Empire • Otto II and Theophano and the Byzantine Connection • Ottonian Renaissance

  10. Otto III

  11. Ninth-Century Invasions • Description of Viking Invasions • Weakening of already weak kings • They started under Charlemagne but kicked up on Louis the Pious

  12. 911 the Northman Rollo was granted the duchy of Normandy • Alfred became Alfred the Great Fighting Vikings • There were other invasions: Muslims, Magyars (Hungarians), and Slavs (Poles)

  13. These invasions short-term disasters but most became Christina kingdoms • Long term influences vary but the Norman influence on England in 1066 was most significant • 1066 and All That • Bayeux Tapestry

  14. Feudal Society • Post-Charlemagne royal or centralized authority weakened • Internal instability and invasions • Emergence of Lord and Vassal Power Arrangements – freeman to freeman bond

  15. What is a vassal • The changing nature of the warrior, the knight • In return for expensive service land, money, or title • Fief and subinfeudation

  16. The role of the Count • Vassal roles inherited or not • As fiefs were divided among children there arose a money shortage • Vassalage and the Private Possession of Political Power: what is it

  17. Where did it flourish • Was it the “feudal system”? • The later idealization of vassalage – chivalry • Song of Roland as a text of idealized vassalage

  18. The reemergence of Central Authority – Feudal Monarchies • Kings would take pay instead of service, use money to buy army • Kings used the judicial system to tighten authority over lords • Kings began to develop more elaborate bureaucracies

  19. Spread of vasslage culture • To Love • To Religion • To the Three Orders of Society

  20. Three Orders Oratores, Bellatores, Laboratores