kyoto and beyond n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Kyoto and Beyond PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Kyoto and Beyond

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 30

Kyoto and Beyond - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Kyoto and Beyond. Road to Durban. The 5th installment in an ongoing series on multilateral agreements related to climate change . November 7 th , 2011. Introduction.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Kyoto and Beyond' - mercia

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
kyoto and beyond

Kyoto and Beyond

Road to Durban

The 5th installment in an ongoing series on multilateral agreements related to climate change

November 7th, 2011


Kyoto and Beyond is a series of presentations on the evolving international climate treaty process that began with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Road to Durban is a summary of the events and negotiations that have transpired since COP16 (Nov. 29-Dec. 10, 2010) and preparatory to COP17 (Nov. 28-Dec.9, 2011).

  • Other presentations in the series include*:
    • Kyoto and beyond: the Evolution of Multilateral Agreements on Climate Change (2008)
    • Report on Copenhagen COP15 (2009)
    • Road to Cancun COP16 (2010)
    • Report on Cancun COP16 (2011)
  • * Available at


NOTE: Throughout this presentation clickable hyperlinks that provide additional information will be underlined and written in green.

a brief review of cop16
A Brief Review of COP16

COP16 (Conference of the Parties) was held from Nov. 29 to Dec. 10, 2010 in Cancun, Mexico.

“ Cancun was a big step... Governments renewed their trust in each other, but to succeed fully they need to press boldly ahead with what they have agreed. “Christina Figueres, UNFCCC Executive Secretary

  • COP16 was deemed a relative success, restoring global belief in the process of climate change legislation.

Image Credit: UNFCCC Website

  • The meeting resulted in the Cancun Agreements, tangible steps towards reducing the effects of climate change through 5 drafted mechanisms.
  • The meeting failed to resolve the future of the Kyoto Protocol, which ends in 2012.
a brief review of cop161
A Brief Review of COP16

The 5 Mechanisms of the Cancun Agreements

The Green Climate Fund

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+)

Monitoring, Reporting and Verifying (MRV)

Incorporation of the CopenhagenAccord

Adaptation Framework

For more information click on an item in the list

significant events between cop16 cop17
Significant Events Between COP16 & COP17

June 6 - 17

UN Climate Change Conference in Bonn

Oct 1 - 7

UN Climate Change Conference in Panama

January 27-28

South African Civil Society Meeting

August 26 – 27

Eighth BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change

January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December

April 3 – 11UN Bangkok Climate Change Conference

Aug 22MaiteNkoana-Mashabane meets business leaders

Aug 29MaiteNkoana-Mashabane meets Organized Labour

Sept 26 – 27Pre–COP17 Summit

Event Key

Official UNFCCC Meetings

Other Significant Meetings

and Events

For more information click on an event box

essential points of understanding
Essential Points of Understanding

COP17 Nov. 28 – Dec. 9, 2011, Durban, South Africa

  • This is the last conference before the 1st commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol ends (Dec. 31, 2012) and there is no binding instrument post-2012 to address climate change.
  • The differing viewpoints between developed and developing countries continue to block significant progress.
  • Climate is changing, impacts of climate change are now emerging, and will intensify over the coming decades.
  • Increasingly, scientists suggest that the window of opportunity to avoid long-term consequences is closing as global temperatures rise.

“ We go to Durban with no illusions that it will be a walk in the park“Jacob Zuma, President of South Africa

provisional agenda
Provisional Agenda*

COP 17 Key Agenda Items

  • Discuss progress and implementation of the mechanisms created at COP16, as well as how these mechanisms will be funded.
  • Discuss and review country commitments to matters such as global financing, emissions reductions, and development and transfer of green technology.
  • Discuss the financial and technological needs of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and methods for adapting to current effects of climate change.
  • Discuss methods for equitable access to sustainable development for both Developed and Developing countries.

* The agenda will be finalized in Durban. Provisional agenda can be found here.

south africa s contextual role
South Africa’s Contextual Role

As host country, South Africa will bring the most vulnerable nations into the center of the climate change discussion.

  • South Africa is an influential and credible voice of developing nations, particularly as a member of the BASIC countries.
  • Many hope South Africa will facilitate understanding and cooperation between developed and developing nations. Global confidence in South Africa’s ability to lead negotiations is high.
  • South Africa, a top 20 GHG emitter, has committed to reducing emissions 34% by 2020 and 42% by 2025. However, some economists say this would require significant restructuring of the country’s industries.

Click map image for more information on South Africa’s preparations

Image Credit:

south africa s leadership role
South Africa’s Leadership Role

Jacob Zuma, South Africa’s President, believes COP17 will highlight the impactsclimate change has had on Africa.

“It is a timely conference for our country. Disaster events have become an increasing burden.”President Zuma

image credit: Wikimedia Commons

Zuma cautions leaders not to be “overly theoretical when countries face life and death situations as a result of climate change,” and he seeks an outcome that is balanced and fair with support for legislative action.

  • Zuma’s COP17 objectives:
  • Determine the future of the Kyoto Protocol,
  • Make adaptation central to climate change legislation,
  • Implement COP16 decisions.
south africa s leadership role1
South Africa’s Leadership Role

Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, COP17 President Designate, faces pressure to facilitate cooperation between developed and developing nations.

image provided by Wikimedia Commons

Nkoana-Mashabane, South Africa’s Minister of International Relations and Cooperation, hopes to prove that developing nations have a credible voice in climate change discussions.

Nkoana-Mashabane must:

  • Avoid the deadlock and inactivity present at COP15,
  • Build upon the progress made at COP16.

Click here for information on Nkoana-Mashabane’s main concerns for COP17

points of view developed vs developing countries1
Points of View: Developed vs. Developing Countries

On a Second Commitment Period for the Kyoto Protocol

addressing the growth cap
Addressing the Growth Cap

Attempts to limit global temperature rise to 2 C may no longer be an option.

  • To constrain the increase to 2C, GHG emissions should not exceed 450ppm (parts per million) of CO2 equivalent.
  • According to the EIA*, the projected emissions pathway is 650ppm, which could cause a global temperature rise of around 4C with severe consequences.
  • Avoiding catastrophic consequences of a 4C rise is not achievable with current emissions reductions pledges, and will require a change in policy.

Image Credit:

* US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration

addressing the growth cap1
Addressing the Growth Cap

Limiting global temperature rise to 2 C will require transformative changes*.

  • Reducing the use of fossil fuels, and increasing energy conservation and efficiency will not be enough.
  • Oil, natural gas, and coal demand must peak before 2020.
  • Green tech spending must increase to $18 trillion per year between 2010 and 2035 – $13.5 trillion more than currently planned.
  • The amount of CO2 emitted per dollar of GDP must be reduced in 2008-2020 two times faster than in 1990-2008, and four times faster in 2020-2035.

The technology to make these changes exists, but a transformation of this scope has never occurred.

*IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 Factsheet; Online at:

current state of global emissions
Current State of Global Emissions

Emissions measurements for 2009 were the highest in history.*

Parts Per Million (PPM) – measurement of atmospheric C02 levels

Gigatonne – one billion tonnes, the typical measurement for C02 emissions data

1 PPM = 2.13 Gigatonnes**

A chief economist at the IEA has stated that record emissions hinder hopes of limiting global temperature rise to less than 2 C.***

* IEA World Energy Outlook 2010 Factsheet; Online at:** Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center


current state of global emissions1
Current State of Global Emissions

Emissions are increasing from the developing world, and projected emissions from the power sector are locked in.

  • About 75% of the 2009 emissions increase came from developing countries compared to 60% in 2008.
  • 80% of 2020 projected emissions from the power sector are already locked in – amounts are significant and will come from existing power plants and plants currently under construction.

“The figures are a stark warning to governments to make rapid climate progress.” Christina Figueres, UNFCCC Executive Secretary.

Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons

current state of global emissions2
Current State of Global Emissions

Emissions status of the big emitters: US, China, India*

  • The US ranks 1st in per capita emissions among the biggest economies –18 tons per person.
  • China’s emissions have increased 171% since 2000 – its emissions levels are greater than the US and Canada combined.
  • India ranks 3rd and Russia ranks 4th in the list of largest CO2 emitters.

Click here to download the Excel file containing the full set of statistics.

Click here to view a graphic of the statistics (Mark McCormick and Paul Scruton , The Guardian).

* Global C02 emissions statistics for 2009, U.S. Energy Information Administration (US EIA). EIA statistics for 2010 have not yet been compiled for public release.

current state of global financing
Current State of Global Financing

It is estimated that each year for the next 20 years $275 billion is needed for adaptation and mitigation.*

  • There is uncertainty about which financing mechanisms are most effective in helping developing countries reduce emissions and implement green development.
  • The majority of donor countries received low scores in a funding transparency scorecard**, suggesting that there is little way of knowing how much money is contributed to which projects.
  • Pledges for REDD+ may be too little considering the number of implementing economies. And, funds are not being distributed in a timely manner, adversely affecting the political will of rainforest nations who need to alter agricultural methods.
  • The international carbon credits market has suffered a nearly total collapse, with only $1.5bn of credits traded last year - the lowest since the market opened in 2005.*

* World Bank

** International Institute for Environment and Development

emerging science the role of forests
Emerging Science: The Role of Forests

There is an increase in attention to the role carbon sinks will play in sequestering GHG emissions.*

Land monitoring policies, such as REDD+ have become increasingly important to preserve forests

  • According to a report released in Sciencexpress by Pan et al., forests play an important role as global carbon sinks.
  • Studies by Pan et al. have revealed that the world’s forests are currently sequestering 861 ± 66 petagrams** of carbon (PgC).
  • Some sinks have increased in size. The boreal sink in European Russia increased in size by 35% due to factors that include agricultural abandonment and reduced harvesting.

Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons

  • Others, such as some tropical sinks, have decreased due to deforestation for agriculture and pasture.

* Pan et al. “A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests”** 1 petagram = 1,000,000,000,000,000 grams

emerging science extreme weather now
Emerging Science: Extreme Weather Now

A recent IPCC draft report* states a 2-in-3 probability that extreme weather has already worsened due to human-induced GHG emissions.

  • The extremes include long droughts, monsoonal rains and heavy flooding, and intense heat waves.
  • The frequency, duration, and intensity of extremes will continue to increase over the coming decades.

Image Credit: NASA, Wikimedia Commons

  • IPCC scientists are 99% certain that the world will experience an increase in extremes of heat and decrease of cold.
  • Heat waves may peak at 5 degrees hotter by mid-century and at 9 degrees hotter by the end of the century.

* IPCC draft report, The Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). Final report is expected to be released in mid-November, 2011.

emerging science and cop17
Emerging Science and COP17

How will the emerging scientific knowledge impact discussions and outcomes in Durban?

  • Inability to limit temp rise to 2C. May facilitate cooperation and decrease deadlock as pressure to act intensifies.
  • Current emissions pathway (650ppm, +4C). May result in more “finger pointing” between nations, creating disagreement and deadlock similar to COP15 in Copenhagen

By US Army Africa [CC-BY-2.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

  • Extreme weather now. May intensify discussions on adaptation for the most vulnerable nations, and developed nations may participate with a new sense of urgency as their vulnerabilities are also exposed.
  • Carbon sinks. May propel more funding for programs such as REDD+ and the Green Climate Fund as the importance of green land-use, such as carbon sinks grows.
moving forward in an uncertain future
Moving Forward in an Uncertain Future

Upcoming opportunities to advance climate change progress.

Important Meetings Post-COP17

June 2012 - G20 summit, Mexico. May be some discussion on climate change.

June 2012 - Rio+20 Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants to discuss successes and failures of past 20 years of climate change legislation and ways to tackle future issues.

Late 2012 - COP18, Qatar or South Korea. NOTE: It is possible the Kyoto Protocol will have ended completely, therefore eliminating COP18.

  • The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) ends with the 1st commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (Dec. 31, 2012), but some hope that CDM can be kept alive, even without binding targets.
  • The European Union, with its own reduction targets and credits (ending in 2020), is predicted to be a driving force for CDM post-2012.
  • Other nations, such as Venezuela and Bolivia, have voiced that CDM should not operate without another binding commitment period.
conclusion possible outcomes from cop17
Conclusion: Possible Outcomes from COP17

Can COP17 generate effective, timely actions to address increasingly urgent climate issues?

Time runs out for the Kyoto Protocol. COP17 sets 5-yr target for Protocol successor.

Image Credit: UNFCCC

Mechanisms of the Protocol and the Cancun Agreements continue, even without binding targets.

The Rio+20 Earth Summit gains new urgency as a potential vehicle of change.

Regional coalitions of nations pursue collective agreements outside of the UNFCCC process.


Abranches, Sergio. "Bonn Signals a Dismal Outcome for COP17." Ecopolity. 7 June 2011.

Web."Adaptation to Top COP17." Bua News. Government Communication and Information System, 6 Sept. 2011. Web."All Citizens Have Stakes in Climate Change Deal - Business News | IOL Business |" Business Report. 8 Sept. 2011. Web., Athena. "The Road to the Green Climate Fund." World Resources Institute | Global Warming, Climate Change, Ecosystems, Sustainable Markets, Good Governance & the Environment. 14 Feb. 2011.


Bird, Neil and Jonathan Glennie. “How to ensure climate change finance is well spent.”The Guardian. 8 Sept. 2011.


Bryce-Pease, Sherwin. "World Leaders Rally Behind Zuma Ahead of COP17." SABC News. 20 Sept. 2011. Web.

Cameron, Edward. "A Window Of Opportunity At Panama UNFCCC Climate Negotiations." WRI Insights. 29 Sept. 2011.

Web.“Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center – Conversion Tables.”CDIAC. Web.

Carin, Barry. “Beyond Cannes: Looking Ahead to 2012 and Mexico.”CIGI. 27 Sept. 2011.


Ciplet, David, J. Timmons Roberts, Martin Stadelmann, Saleemul Huq, and Achala Chandani. “Scoring fast-start climate finance: leaders and l aggards in transparency.”International Institute for Environment and Development. Sept. 2011.


"Climate Fund Info." Climate Fund Info - Home. Web.“Comparing C02 emissions to C02 levels.”Skeptical Science.


"COP17/CMP7DurbanSA." Twitter. Web.!/cop17cmp7durban.“Counting progress towards Durban.”Crikey. 7 Oct, 2011.


"Designing the Green Climate Fund: So Much Disagreement, so Little Time." Climate Equity. 19 Sept. 2011.


"Developing Countries Pledge Bigger Climate Emissions Cuts than World's Richest Nations." Oxfam International. 6 June 2011. Web.

“Donor nations get low scores on climate finance transparency scorecard.”International Institute for Environment and Development. 16 Sept. 2011. Web.

“Durban must pave the way for global treaty – EU”Argus Media. 3 Oct, 2011.


"Expert Meeting on National Adaptation Plans." UNFCCC.



“Extend Kyoto Protocol: India.”Business Standard. 16 Sept. 2011.


“Financing Quarrels Mar UN Climate Talks in Panama.”Environment News Service. 7 Oct, 2011.


Frank, Yetsuh. "CO2 Emissions By Country." Urban Green Council. 4 Feb. 2011.


Friedman, Lisa. “Nations Heading to Durban Climate Change Talks Remain Deeply Divided.”The New York Times. 10 Oct, 2011.


“Global Dialogue Series: Financing Climate Action.”World Bank Institute.


Gabara, Nthambeleni. "Africa to Talk Climate-smart Agriculture at COP 17." Bua News. 1 Sept. 2011.

Web., David. "Governing the Green Climate Fund." Brookings Institution. 21 Sept. 2011.

Web."Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Jump to Record Levels." Environment News Science. 30 May 2011.


Gonzalez, Laura L. "Questions Marks around Finance of Green Climate Fund." The Global Campaign for Climate Action. 13 Sept. 2011.

Web., Yolandi. "Milking the COP17 Cash Cow." Mail & Guardian Online. 26 Aug. 2011. Web., Stephen P. "Climate Change: Learning the Lessons of the past 50 Years." Poverty Matters Blog. The Guardian UK. Web.

"Half-time Ahead of COP17." SIFI. 2 Aug. 2011. Web.

Hlongwane, Sipho. "Environmental Affairs, Dirco: We're on Track for COP17. And We're Not Fighting." Daily Maverick. 3 Aug. 2011.


"INTERNATIONAL ENERGY OUTLOOK 2011." U.S. Energy Information Administration. 19 Sept. 2011.


"Invitation to Meet SA Govt on COP17, and BASIC Press Release." COP17 - Climate Change Talks in Durban. 30 Aug. 2011. Web., Ewa. “UN Says It’s CO2 Market May Draw Investors Without Binding Goals.”Bloomberg Businessweek. 7 Oct. 2011.


“Kyoto Protocol under threat, but developed countries insist on continuity of market mechanisms.”Shout-Africa. 6 Oct. 2011. Web.

"Kyoto Team Suspends Romania From Carbon Market." Zee News. 29 Aug. 2011.


"KwaZulu-Natal Pre-COP17 Summit." Province of KwaZulu-Natal Online Media Library.


Lacey, Stephen and Joe Romm. “The Deniers’ Fantasy World: EIA Projects 40% Rise in CO2 Emissions by 2035.”Climate Progress. 21 Sept. 2011. Web.


Langeni, Loyiso. "China, India ‘must Agree to Climate Deal’." Home - BusinessDay. BDFM Publishers, 1 Sept. 2011. Web., Loyiso, and Edward West. "SA Should ‘protect Jobs, Investment as It Sets Carbon-emission Targets’." Business Day. 23 Aug. 2011.


"Legal Issues and Development of the International Climate Regim." Foundation for International Environment Law and Development. Aug. 2011. Web.

“Lines drawn ahead of COP17.”India Carbon Outlook. 9 May, 2011. Web.

Lyubinskiy, Ilya. "Address by President Jacob Zuma to the Informal Ministerial Consultations on COP 17." African National Congress Home Page. 9 Sept. 2011. Web.

Mannak, Miriam. "Zuma: COP17 Should Secure a Global Agreement." Mail & Guardian Online. 5 May 2011.


Masters, Lesley. "COP 17: A Complex Exercise in Climate Diplomacy for South Africa."Heinrich Böll Stiftung. 8 June 2011.


Matola, Miller. “South Africa ready to host COP17 Summit.”China Daily. 15 Sept. 2011.


Matope, Tsitsi. "Climate Change Impact: One Voice from Africa at COP 17 Summit."Afronline – The Voice Of Africa. VITA Content Company, 17 Aug. 2011. Web., Wisdom. "Cop 17: Is SA or Africa Equal to the Task? - Newsday: Everyday News for Everyday People." Newsday Zimbabwe. 21 Aug. 2011. Web.

"Media Invite: COP17 Minister Nkoana-Mashabane Meets Organized Labour."International Relations & Cooperation. South African Government, 29 Aug. 2011. Web.

"Minister Nkoana-Mashabane Consults with Organised Labour on COP17/CMP7."South African Government Information. 29 Aug. 2011.


"Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane on South Africa’s Level of Preparedness on COP17/CMP7." National Business Initiative. 2 Aug. 2011. Web. d34d-4582-999b-0778898cb878&NBIitem=37.

Morgan, Jennifer. "Painting By Numbers In The Panama Climate Talks." World Resources Institute. 7 Oct. 2011.


Mungoshi, Rudo. "Joburg Looks Ahead to COP17." Joburg, My City, Our Future. City of Johannesburg, 6 Sept. 2011. Web., Brindaveni. “Durban COP17 meeting should focus on ‘fair’ climate regime – Molewa.”Engineering News. 29 July, 2011. Web.

New, Mark, Diana Liverman, Heike Schroder, and Kevin Anderson. “Four degrees and beyond: the potential for a global temperature increase of four degrees and its implications.”Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society.



"Nkoana-Mashabane Hosts Meeting Ahead of COP17." SABC News. 5 Sept. 2011. Web.

Onyekakeyah, Luke. “Onyekakeyah: Failing promises on climate change financing.”The Guardian Nigeria. 20 Sept. 2011.


“Panama Climate Change Conference: Summary of the Meeting.”IISD Reporting Services. Web.

"Panama Talks Last Opportunity to Set Ambitious Tone for South Africa Climate Summit." WWF Global. 26 Sept. 2011. Web.

"Proposed Plan of Action for Second Semester 201." REDD+ Partnership. 16 Sept. 2011.


Pretorius, Lise. "Environment - COP17: Cost of Being Green." BDFM Publishers, 25 Aug. 2011.

Web., Janet. “World could head up 4 degrees C in 50 years.”Science News. 18 Dec. 2010.


"Remarks by Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane to Labour on COP17/CMP7."International Relations & Cooperation. South African Government, 29 Aug. 2011. Web.

Responding to Climate Change in Preparation for COP 17." National Business Initiative. 23 Sept. 2011. Web d34d-4582-999b-0778898cb878&NBIitem=47.“Rio +20: Resisting market environmentalism and strengthening rights and social-environmental justice.”FASE.


“Rio +20”Rio +20. Web.

Rogers, Simon, and Lisa Evans. "World Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data by Country: China Speeds Ahead of the Rest." The Guardian UK. 31 Jan. 2011. Web."SA’s ‘foreign Minister’ to Chair COP17 | COP17 Climate Change Talks in Durban."COP17€“ Climate Change Talks in Durban. 21 Feb. 2011.

Web.“SA urges developed nations to extend Kyoto Protocol”Green Business Guide. 23 June, 2011.


Schueneman, Thomas. "Enthusiasm at Low Ebb for COP17 Climate Change Conference in Durban." Global Warming Blogs. 26 Sept. 2011.


"South Africa: Minister Edna Molewa and Kwazulu-Natal Premier Dr Zweli Mkhize to Collaborate Ahead of Climate Change Negotiations." Home. South African Government, 6 Sept. 2011.

Web."South Africa’s Level of Preparedness on COP17/CMP7 Scheduled for November – December 2011 in Durban, South Africa." South African Consulate General. 2 Aug. 2011. Web., Bjorn. "COP17: Business, Govt Must Work Together." Thought Leader. Mail & Guardian.


"The January COP17 Civil Society Planning Conference In Durban." COP17 - Climate Change Talks in Durban. 29 Jan. 2011.




"UN Climate Change Conference Bangkok - April 2011." IISD Reporting Services. Web.

"UN Climate Change Conference Opens in Panama." IISD Reporting Services. 1 Oct. 2011.


"UN Climate Change Conference June 2011." IISD Reporting Services. Web.

"UNITAR Organizes South African Workshop in Preparation for COP 17." Climate Change Policy & Practice - Daily News. IISD, Mar. 2011.


"Voluntary REDD+ Database." REDD+ Partnership. Web.

Watts, Jonathan. “Carbon capture progress has lost momentum, says energy agency.”The Guardian UK. 22 Sept. 2011.


"Wikimedia Commons." Wikimedia Commons. Web.

“World Energy Outlook 2010 Factsheet: What does the global energy outlook to 2035 look like?”International Energy Agency. 2010.

"World GHG Emissions Hit Record Level." Environmental Leader. 31 May 2011.


“Worst case study: global temp up 4 degrees C by 2060s.”Reuters. 29 Nov. 2010.


Zain al-Mahmood, Syed. “COP17: The road to Durban.”Dhaka Courier. 7 Oct. 2011. Web.

Zuma, Jacob. “Address by President Dr. Jacob Zuma on aspects of South African Foreign Policy at the University of Pretoria.”African National Congress. 13 Oct. 2011. Web.

"Zuma Sets 3 Objectives for COP17, Assures Peers on Logistical Arrangement." African Climate Policy Centre. July 2011.



When referencing this slideshow please use the following citation:

ISCIENCES, L.L.C. The Road to Durban. A slideshow; 5th installment in the series Kyoto and Beyond. November 7, 2011. Ann Arbor, Michigan.

November 7, 2011