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  1. CUSTOMIZING FACULTY DEVELOPMENTfaculty members’ roles and skills

  2. Overview • LMU Center for Leadership and People Management • Research questions • Theoretical background • Methods • Results • Discussion Beata Pawlowska, MA

  3. LMU Center for Leadership and People Management Strategic Objectives of LMU Introduction • Academic Excellence • Junior Faculty Development • Interdisciplinarity • Internationality • Equality PersonnelDevelopment Scientific Foundation Need Assessment 3 Beata Pawlowska, MA

  4. Overview of the course programme Introduction 4 Beata Pawlowska, MA

  5. What are the roles of a professor and what skills are needed to fulfil them? Beata Pawlowska, MA

  6. Theoretical Background Managerial roles (McCall und Segrist, 1978; Tsui, 1984) • Leader: direct work of subordinates; facilitate subordinate's growth and development • Liaison: attend social functions to keep up contacts; stay attuned to informal network • Environment monitor: keep up with market trends; learn about new ideas form outside • Spokesperson: serve as an expert to people outside the unit; represent the unit • Entrepreneur: plan and implement changes; initiate controlled changes • Resource allocator: distribute budgeted resources Beata Pawlowska, MA

  7. Theoretical Background Intellectual capacities of faculty members (Wyer & Blood, 2006) • Theory in the discipline: a command of the construct • Core knowledge of the discipline: an understanding of declarative and procedural knowledge • Professional practice in the discipline: a command of the methodologies, issues, environment, responsibilities that support the application of the discipline • Research knowledge: a command of the methodologies, issues, and responsibilities that create knowledge in the discipline • Educational practice in the discipline: a command of the methodologies, issues, and responsibilities that communicate the discipline to students • What kind of skills (other than intellectual) does a faculty member need in order to function successfully? Beata Pawlowska, MA

  8. Research questions Beata Pawlowska, M.A. • What is a role set of a university professor? • What kind of soft skills does a university professor need in order to execute those roles? • What are a university professor’s training preferences? 8

  9. Interviews Sample population: University Professors (N = 24) Length of the interview: 35 minutes Sample questions: “As a university professor what type of roles do you fulfil on a daily basis ?” “What type of skills do you need in order to fulfil those roles?” “What type of professional training would you be interested in?” Data Analysis (Mayring, 2007) 1.Analysis of interview texts following the guidelines for qualitative content analysis 2. MAXQDA software 3. Inductive category development & deductive category development 4. Assignment of statements to the respective categories (preliminary coding procedure) 5. Revision and refinement of categories (feedback loops) 6. Development of inclusion criteria, prototypical examples, and coding rules for each category (coding schema) 7. Frequencies coded for each category The Study Beata Pawlowska, MA 9

  10. Results: Roles A basic professorial role set Beata Pawlowska, MA

  11. Results: Roles Roles: how many subcategories emerged? • (a)task-oriented (1) • 1. Leader (b) person-oriented (5) • 2. Teacher • 3. Researcher • 4. Administrator • 5. Professional • General • Education • Mentoring Motivation • Team cohesion teaching (1) • „doing research“ • Environment monitor • Spokesperson • Liaison • Resource manager • Entrepreneur research (5) “doing administration” Spokesperson Liaison Resource manager Entrepreneur administration (6) consulting (1) Beata Pawlowska, MA

  12. Roles:managerial role set vs. professorial role set Results: Roles Beata Pawlowska, MA Leader Liaison Environment monitor Spokesperson Entrepreneur Resource allocator Leader Teacher Researcher Administrator Professional 12

  13. Results: Roles Roles: leaders’ subcategories Beata Pawlowska, MA

  14. Results: Roles Roles: core concepts regarding leaders’ categories Task-oriented leader Criteria: Structuring, supervision, control of work processes, personnel selection Person-oriented leader Criteria: Promoting intellectual and personal growth of subordinates • Education training/education of research team members • Mentoring promote career and personality development • Motivation motivate research team members/coworkers • Team promote team cohesion Beata Pawlowska, MA

  15. Results: Roles Roles: researchers’ subcategories Beata Pawlowska, MA

  16. Researcher: core concepts regarding researchers’ categories Results: Roles Beata Pawlowska, MA • Researcher General Criteria: General descriptions of the task “Research” • Researcher Specific Criteria: To develop and discuss theories and experiments; to think; to produce scientific texts; • Environmental monitor Criteria: To be up to date with current scientific research (publications, conferences, etc.) • Spokesperson Criteria: To represent the interests of the university and communicate research results (consultant, reviewer, publisher) • Liaison Criteria: Create and maintain contact with other researchers (inside and outside the university)  • Resource manager Criteria: Procurement/ management of external funds, sharing/spreading/distributing tangible resources   • Entrepreneur/Strategist Criteria: To plan research projects; to influence continual direction of institute or research area 16

  17. Results: Roles Roles: administrators’ subcategories Beata Pawlowska, MA

  18. Administrator: core concepts behind administrators’ categories Results: Roles Beata Pawlowska, MA • General administration Criteria: General descriptions of the task “Administration” • Spokesperson Criteria: Rector, director, chair, “administrative interests” • Liaison Criteria: To make outside contacts, that are not related to scientific research (business) • Resource manager Criteria: To distribute tangible resources (outside of research team) • Entrepreneur Criteria: To plan and influence structural changes that influence organization structure 18

  19. Results: Roles Managerial role set within professorial role set Additional roles: Teacher & Professional Beata Pawlowska, MA

  20. Results: Roles Managerial role set within professorial role set Beata Pawlowska, MA

  21. What kind of soft skills are need in academia?

  22. Soft Skills Beata Pawlowska, MA 22

  23. Soft skills: categories and examples Results: Skills 1. Cooperativeness (Team) Criteria: General ability to cooperate effectively within the team; conflict management; fostering group identity Example: „one must be able to work in team, to cooperate with other people “ 2. Communication ability Criteria: to be able to state one's opinion clearly, converse with others 3. Sociability Criteria: friendliness, presence, networking Example:„management by walking“ Beata Pawlowska, MA 23

  24. Soft skills: categories and examples Results: Skills Beata Pawlowska, MA 4. Openness Criteria: curiosity; creativity  Example: „…one has to have a broad range of knowledge, one has to think in terms of innovation and creativity…“ 5. Organization Criteria: to set priorities; work scheduling; time management Example: „…one has to be very structured and very well organized“ 6. Resilience Criteria: hardiness; frustration tolerance; ability to work under pressure Example: „Thick skin “ , “Here is everybody against everybody and this is normal. You just need to accept this“ 24

  25. Soft skills: categories and examples Results: Skills Beata Pawlowska, MA 7. Flexibility Criteria: adaptable; variable  Example: „....one is all-in-one device suitable for every purpose“ „…being a professor is much more complex, you are not just a researcher“ „....the Swiss Army knife“ 8. Didactic ability Criteria: Ability to communicate the topic clearly; pleasure of teaching, charisma Example: „There are professors who simply are brilliant, but they don‘t have any pedagogical abilities“ „Pleasure of teaching and sharing of results or knowledge”. 25

  26. Developmental needs and learning preferences Results: Needs and Preferences • Preferences • Individual coaching • Small group seminar • Workshops • Crash-courses • Discussion groups • Needs • Cooperation • Motivation • Leadership • Communication • Conflict management Beata Pawlowska, MA 26

  27. CONCLUSIONS • A role set of a university professor consists of five distinct dimensions. • Moreover, a managerial role set is a part of a university professor’s role set. Thus, the roles identified by Tsui in a business setting can also be found in an academic setting. • However, a university professor fulfils a role similar to that of a manager only when acting as a leader, an administrator or a researcher. • In addition, a university professor acts as a professional and a teacher. • In order to execute faculty roles, a university professor needs to be an expert in a given area and a team player with highly developed communication skills. • Given the social nature of a professorial role set, the findings regarding the most vital soft skills are not surprising. Beata Pawlowska, MA 27

  28. References Mayring, P. (2007). Qualitative Inhaltsanlyse. Grundlagen und Techniken (9. überarb. Aufl.). Beltz, Weinheim/Basel. Tsui, A. S. (1984). A Role Set Analysis of Managerial Reputation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 64-96. Wyer, J. C., & Blood, M. R. (2006). Who Can Do This Job? Intellectual Capacities and the Faculty Role. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 5(1), 101–112. Beata Pawlowska, MA

  29. Contact Beata Pawlowska, M.A. e-Mail: beata.pawlowska@psy.lmu.de phone: +49 (0)89 2180-9785 office: Giselastraße 10, room 308 www.lmu.de/excellent/peoplemanagement Postal address: Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 180539 Munich Thank You 32