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Introduction to the GIO Training. © M S GIS & Mapping, 2000. Planning for GIS. To create a GIS Strategy and get it accepted From GIS Strategy to action plan and activity program The human GIS network – how and why

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Introduction to the GIO Training

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Planning for GIS

To createa GIS Strategy and get it accepted

From GIS Strategy to action plan and activity program

The human GIS network – how and why

Activity Description / Analysis as the Initial Stages of a GIS Development Process

GIS Economy

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


To create a GIS Strategy and get it accepted

  • The Importance of a GIS Strategy
  • Motives for and Contents of a GIS Strategy
  • To Create and Establish a GIS Strategy – Methods and Mechanisms
  • The Role of the Top Management
  • A Geographic Information Officer – Position and Tasks

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


The Importance of a GIS Strategy

Utilising GIS = Supportive to organisational development processes

Utilising GIS = Supportive to the use of the information as a strategic asset within the organisation

A GIS strategy is a strategic document for an organisation – affects all departments, all co-operation and co-ordination processes within the organisation as well as external information flows

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Create and Establish a GIS Strategy - Methods and Mechanisms

  • Some basic advice
    • Ensure support from the top management
    • Identify those who are dealing with GIS within the organisation – involve them in the project group
    • Create a project group with representatives from many departments – this is not an IT issue

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Create and Establish a GIS Strategy – Methods and Mechanisms

Use the Strategic Tools

Start State of Ideas about Vision Choices the art GIS

Risks Respon- Out- Action Feed Finish sibilities lines plan back

The pre study

The main study

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


From GIS Strategy to Action Plan and Activity Program

  • Analysing the GIS Strategy – Key words/ key sentences
  • To transform key words/ key sentences into activities
  • To frame objectives and describe methods
  • Mandatory outlines – how and when
  • Acceptance processes
  • The activity timetable – a management tool
  • To link the planning and management tools together

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Some Basics

  • Action Plan - 2 – 3 years
    • Long time planning within the organisation
    • Budget planning – funding discussions
    • Verify implementation of a GIS strategy/doctrine/vision
    • ’Major activities’ > 1 month calendar time
  • Activity Program - 1 year
    • Planning and management document
    • The management tool for the GIO
    • Basic material for periodical reports
    • 2 weeks – 1 month calendar time

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Some Basics

  • (cont’d.)
    • Activity Timetable (Project schedule)
      • Project dependent
      • Not periodical
      • All activities > 1 working week or > 500 USD
      • The management tool for a project manager

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


To remember – from key word in a strategy to the activity level

Key word



Sub objective



© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Why this procedure?

Source material for the activity program and project schedule

Source material for budget planning and project feed-back

A check list – not forgetting any important component – reliability, confidence

Cost by effect – or – Effect by cost – Return to the doctrine/strategy/vision – Responsibility with the top management

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Mandatory Outlines – Why and How?

Many users

Systems integration

Enterprisewide and joint data

Joint data storage

Shared context concerning terms, definitions, attributes etc.

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Acceptance Processes

  • Implementing GIS means
        • - changing work flow
        • - needs for new skills
        • - changed internal organisation
        • - needs for new priorities
      • Threat versus options
      • On time schedule
      • Avoid rumours
      • Repeated training and information

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Relations Between Action Plan, Activity Program and Project Schedule …

Action plan

Act. 2

Act. 3

Act. 1

Project specific -management tool - detailed - not periodical

Act. 2a-d

Act. 3a-f

Act. 1a-g


Activity timetable (Project schedule)

Jan – June July – Dec Jan - June

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


The Human GIS network – How and Why?

  • What is a GIS Network
  • Who are the presumable members of a GIS Network
  • The GIS Network – established how and when
  • How to utilise a GIS Network within the organisation
  • Knowledge enhancement within a GIS Network
  • Information dissemination within a GIS Network

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


What is a GIS Network?

  • A human network consisting of individuals with comprehensive GIS skills within an organisation – recognised by the top management.
  • A support resource for the GIS end users within the organisation.
  • An information forum concerning development aspects on GIS.
  • One way of encouraging personal development for improved tasks and responsibilities in the job.
  • The professional GIS staff for the top management.

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Who are the Presumable Members of a GIS Network?

The GIO + GIS specialists

The GIS Network

Analysis & Data editing

Simple analysis & presentation

GIS browsing

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


How to Utilise a GIS Network?

  • Major activities for the network (sample)
    • Create or revise the GIS Strategy
    • A new three year action plan
    • Comprehensive training activities
    • Implementation of a new SW platform
    • Implementation of a meta data concept
    • Monitor the development within the GIS area

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


How to Utilise a GIS Network?

  • Motives for the organisation to have a network
    • Enforce the total level of GIS skills within the network
    • Available option for relevant knowledge support in every situation
    • Reduce the needs for external concultancy support for major activities
    • The members of the GIS network feel themselves wanted and that their skills are used and appreciated – they do a better job
    • Better monitoring GIS activities in the surrounding world – cost reductions for the own organisation

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Activity Description/ Analysis as the Initital Stage of a GIS Development Process

  • Activity description and activity analysis – What and Why
  • An activity analysis as a component in implementing GIS – the process chain
  • Activity modelling and conceptual modelling

© M S GIS & Mapping


Activity Description and Activity Analysis – What and Why

A distinct and corporate image of the activity concerned

Facilitate dialogue and information exchange

Create a base for information management and development

Facilitate cooperation and participation without demands for GIS skills

Enhance the prerequisites to get GIS operational

© M S GIS & Mapping


Why Conceptual Analysis?

  • Participation possible without need for GIS skills
  • Bottomline for information management
  • Bottomline for data base design activities
  • Bottomline for design of more flexible IT-systems
  • Systematic – instead of ”trial and error”
  • Base for activity and work flow development

Source: Eken & Arken, 2000



Ideas about the real world

The Conceptual World

The Percepted World

Is used to


communicate about

Entities in

Symbols for our

The real world

perception about

the real world

'Dator', 'Computer', .....

Concepts and the Real World

”The Perception Triangle”

Corresponds to

The Real World

Communicating the World

Source: Astrakan (1997)


An Activity Analysis as a Component in Implementing GIS – the Process Cycle

Activity Description  Activity Analysis

Activity Model Information Model

Requirements Data Base Design Specification Specification Development activities

© M S GIS & Mapping


GIS Economy

  • Economic Tools when Implementing GIS
  • Basic Aspects on Investment Calculations
  • Balanced Scorecard – One Tool for Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • The Responsibility of the Project Management Concerning Project Economy
  • Economic Pitfalls

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


GIS Economy Tools

General view









Project management

Source: Eken & Arken, 2000


Costs – Examples – The IT-man




Information services




Commitment and ethics


Data aquisition

Data code, Standards

Training, Time





Technical infrastructure

Maintenance of HW and SW

Source: Eken & Arken, 2000


Balanced Scorecard

Source: Eken & Arken, 2000


The Responsibility of the Project Management Concerning Project Economy

Long time obligations to be considered

Calculation uncertainties occur – take care of

Reports – regular, on site reports

Keep the planned budget

Agreement with ’the customer’- functionality, cost, time

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000


Economic Pitfalls

Unclear responsibilities

Continuos interference from the customer about changed (increased) functionality

Poor activity timetable (project schedule)

Poor requirements specification due to bad work flow description and analysis

Poor RFQs for development activities

© M S GIS & Mapping, 2000