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Chapter 8: The Unification of China

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Chapter 8: The Unification of China. Lao Tse: Wuwei Dao “The Way” Passive and yielding. Period of the Warring States: 403-221 BCE Qin Dynasty 221-207 BCE Former Han Dynasty 206BCE- 9CE Han Wudi 141-87 BCE Wang Mang 9-23 CE Later Han Dynasty 25-220 CE.

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Chapter 8: The Unification of China

Lao Tse:


Dao “The Way”

Passive and yielding

Period of the Warring

States: 403-221 BCE

Qin Dynasty

221-207 BCE

Former Han Dynasty

206BCE- 9CE

Han Wudi

141-87 BCE

Wang Mang

9-23 CE

Later Han Dynasty

25-220 CE

China Under the Qin Dynasty

Junzi: superior


Ren: courtesy

Li: propriety

Xiao: filial piety

Emperor Qin Shihuangdi: Legalism



Confucianism Daoism Legalism

  • Active
  • (Confucius)
  • Ren- humanity,
  • benevolence, kindness
  • Li- propriety, respect,
  • courtesy
  • Xiao- filial piety
  • R-S, H-W, B-B, P-C, F-F
  • Moral and ethical belief
  • Govt should be led by junzi
  • who wouldn’t let personal
  • interests influence judgement
  • Leaders different aspects of
  • Confucianism over time
  • Compatible with other belief systems



No concern for understanding principles

that govern nature or society

No concern for ethics

Harsh social discipline

Collective responsibility

before the law

Supported agriculture and the military

Inactive, Passive

(Lao tse)


introspection/ harmony with nature

Dao = “The Way”: governs the world

Wuwei: disengagement

Yin: (dark, female, soft,passive)

Yang: (light, male, hard,active)

Ambition and activism = chaos



Our guests yesterday told you of the need for funds to support the drilling of water wells and to provide Maasai children with an education. What African country are the Maasai from?

(There are two possible answers but only give me one)


Compare and Contrast Graphic Organizer

Society A / Person A/ Issue A= Confucianism

Society B/ Person B/ Issue B = Daoism

What is the question asking you to compare/contrast? (SOAPSTONE)

A and B, definition of “good” government, relationship of individual and government


Similarities of A and B

Differences between A and B

Reasons for the Differences and/or Similarities?

POV for each document??


Bronze Wheeled Chariot for Imperial Officials: Qin and Han Dynasties

  • What does the chariot indicate about the status of officials in China?
  • What can you determine about the artist?
  • What does this sculpture say about technology in the Qin and Han Dynasties?
  • As an art piece, how would you recognize this as Chinese?
  • What additional piece of information would you like to have to help your analysis?
  • (and how would that information help you?)
  • Presence of four horses with fine harnesses and a finely crafted 2 wheeled cart
  • Very skilled- two kinds of metallurgy: silver and bronze;
  • Refinement of the wheeled vehicle; presence of silver and bronze
  • Realistic quality, chunky horses, composition of bronze; typical Chinese dress of driver, flat angled roof of cart is reminiscent of flat lined roof of Chinese houses

Population Growth in the Han Dynasty

  • General prosperity
  • Increased agricultural productivity
  • Taxes small part of overall income
  • Produce occasionally spoiling in state granaries

Extent of Han Empire during

reign of Han Wudi 87 BCE


Extremely varied- narrow fertile strip by the coastline-

Hills and deserts to the N and W- geography encourages isolation.

Xiongnu: Nomads to the North

Theme 1

Confucianism= moral and ethical, practical method, five relationships

Daoism=passive, yielding, withdrawal, nature contains divine impulse that directs all life, retreat from active world of politics

Legalism= active, discouraged education, reflection, didn’t care about principles governing the world or nature= concerns of the state,

Solution to chaos = strict laws

Theme 2

Great Wall

Built roads, disarmed regional armies, built bridges

Standardized Chinese script, standardized weights and measures,

coins, laws

Han = iron metallurgy, silk (expansion of) and paper production

(before 100 CE) = The Silk Road

Han (Han Wudi) = Confucian education system

Theme 2


Qin Shihuangdi 221-22- BCE- 1st emperor – centralized bureaucracy with administrative provinces and districts (Legalism)

Confucius 551-479 BCE, Laozi 6th C BCE

Han Wudi (Former Han) 141-87 BCE- imperialistic, huge bureaucracy, educated administration

Wang Mang 9-23 CE – reform, socialist emperor

Theme 3

Agriculture/Late Zhou = plows with iron tips, more iron goods later

(Han Wudi) heavy taxes on agriculture, trade and craft industries (iron and silk)imperial monopolies (iron, salt, liquor) = economic strain, raised taxes, confiscated land and personal property, discouraged investment in industries and business

Han = Silk Road

Wang Mang = addressed issues of land distribution

Theme 4

patriarchal/ mandate of heaven/ filial piety/ subordination of women

population increase during Han (Qin 20- Han 60 million) due to

agricultural surplus

Han Wudi ignored nobility, eunuchs

huge social class distinctions led to social unrest

Yellow Turban Uprising = late 2nd Century CE combined with threat

from Xiongnu to the north

Theme 5