Folk and Popular Culture Key Issues • Where do folk and popular cultures originate and diffuse • Why is folk culture clustered? • Why is popular culture widely distributed • Why does globalization of popular culture cause problems?
Key Issue 1: Where do folk and pop cultures originate and diffuse? • Habit- a repetitive act that a particular individual performs. • Custom- a repetitive act that a particular group performs. • Folk culture- the culture traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogenous groups living in isolated rural areas. Amish, Basque • Popular culture- the culture found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics. • Material Culture – the physical objects produced by a culture in order to meet its material needs: food, clothing, shelter, arts, and recreation. Carl Sauer (Berkeley, 1930s – 1970s).
What is Culture? The study of lifestyles, creations, relationships and supernatural- Cultural Geography- all encompassing- Why culture is expressed in different ways Anthropocentrism- interpreting or regarding the world in terms of human values and experiences Enculturation is the process by which a child learns his or her culture.
Features of Culture 1. Styles of Dress 2. Ways of Greeting People 3. Beliefs about Hospitality 4. Importance of Time 5. Paintings 6. Values 7. Literature 8. Beliefs about Child Raising (Children & Teens) 9. Attitudes about Personal Space/Privacy 10. Beliefs about the Responsibilities 11. Gestures 12. Holiday Customs 13. Music 14. Dancing 15. Celebrations 16. Concept of Fairness 17. Nature of Friendship 18. Ideas about Clothing 19. Foods 20. Eating Habits 21. Facial Expressions and Hand Gestures 22. Concept of Self 23. Work Ethic 24. Religious Beliefs 25. Religious Rituals 26. Concept of Beauty 27. Rules of Polite Behavior 28. Attitude Toward Age 29. Beliefs about the Importance of Family 30. General World View
Cultures around the world Source: Johns Hopkins Photo Share
The Fundamentals of Culture The fundamental ways cultures differ is in the way they view: The concept of time (e.g., How important is punctuality? Are people’s lives driven by the clock, or do people have a more relaxed view of time?) The concept of the self (e.g., Is the culture more individualist, or is it more collectivist? Is individual self-reliance and independence more important, or is ensuring the well-being of the group more important?) The concept of focus of control (e.g., Do people believe they control their own lives and their own destinies, or do people believe things “just happen” to them due to fate—or due to outside forces they cannot control?) The concept of personal vs. societal obligations (e.g., Do the same rules apply to everyone, regardless of the situation, or are exceptions made for certain individuals depending on the circumstances?)
The Basics • Material vs. Non-Material Culture- Songbook vs. Song- Belief vs. Temple • Carl Sauer- “The Cultural Landscape” (Built Environment)- Humans footprint on their space • Sequent Occupancy- left over culture
Levels of Culture National culture refers to those experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, values, and institutions that are shared by citizens of the same nation. International culture refers to cultural practices that extend beyond and across national boundaries. Cultural practices may be transmitted through diffusion. Subcultures are identifiable cultural patterns and traditions associated with particular groups in the same complex society.
Features of Culture Cultural universals are certain biological, psychological, social, and cultural features that are found in every culture. Cultural generalities include features that are common to several but not all human groups. Cultural particularities are features that are unique to certain cultural traditions. Culture Trait- the simplest form of culture- a single attribute of culture A handshake as a greeting- bowing for respect Culture Complex- Combination of all culture traits USA- Culture
ValuesComprise ideas about what in life seems important. They guide the rest of the culture. NormsConsist of expectations of how people will behave in various situations. Each culture has methods, called sanctions, of enforcing its norms.InstitutionsInstitutions are the structures of a society within which values and norms are transmitted. ArtifactsThings, or aspects of material culture—derive from a culture's values and norms. Clothing Buildings Tools etc
Mechanisms of Cultural Change - Acculturation Acculturation is the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact. Dominate cultures usually push Acculturation- the weaker of the two adopts the dominate- Colonialism- Imperialism This leads to Assimilation- the weaker culture adopts all of the dominate culture- African-Americans in the 20’s English Language vs. the USA A pidgin is an example of acculturation, because it is a language form that develops by blending language elements from different languages in order to facilitate communication between populations in contact (e.g. in trade relationships).
Assimilation, Transculturation • Diffusion happens as we come into contact with each other • Cultural Convergence- two cultures adopting each others traits- Swahili • Transculturation- Mutual exchange-
Independent Innovation- Creating similar innovation without interaction- Pyramids, Agriculture, domestication- Aliens???
Folk and Pop Culture • Folk Culture- Smaller region and Number • Isolated- Long lasting Cultural traits • Amish, Geisha, Music, Housing, Country Music in the Appalachian Mountains • Spread through Relocation Diffusion • Pop Culture- Mass Diffusion- • Folk usually do not accept or have never been exposed • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SnR-e0S6Ic
Maladaptive Diffusion- Impractical cultural trait • Blue Jeans, Rap Music, • Cultural Imperialism- Imperialized the culture- McDonalds, KFC etc.. • USA- Star bucks • Rises to Cultural Nationalism • Cultural Homogeneity- Destruction of Pop Culture • Pop Culture and Consumption- Cars, Golf Courses, Water Bottles, • Taboo- Against the Cultural Norm- Judaism, Hinduism, Islam • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_iwrt7D5OA
Sentinelese- • Sentinelese exercise complete autonomy over their affairs and the involvement of the Indian authorities is restricted to occasional monitoring, even more infrequent and brief visits, and generally discouraging any access or approaches to the island. It is therefore de facto autonomous. • In 2006, Sentinelese archers killed two fishermen who were fishing illegally within range of the island. The archers later drove off, with a hail of arrows, the helicopter that was sent to retrieve the bodies
Types of Social Customs First type Customs which are derived from basic human needs – especially food, clothing and clothing The methods people choose to meet these needs result in varying landscapes around the world. Second type Related to people’s choices in leisure activities Leisure activities = arts & recreation
Customs Arts – literature, performing arts & visual arts Leisure activities involves recreation, both active, such as sports, and passive, such as television viewing or listening to music. Cultural Landscapes In monochronic cultures, the belief is that time is fixed and people need to regulate their lives by it In polychronic cultures, the belief is that time is the servant and tool of people.
Space Concepts The western cultures focus their attention on objects, and neglect the space in between. The Japanese, on the other hand, honor the space in between as ma. In a different system, the Hopi Indians have in their language no words for a fixed room: all objects are described in their relation to each other, but no concept of a three dimensional space exists. Also the way we deal with space is different. The concepts of the private space, the space orientation, the interpersonal distance and the space design.
Culture Regions and Realms • Cultural Regions- drawn around people with similar culture • People often share regional identity- regional identity common culture or emotional attachment • Leads to perceptual regions (Vernacular)- China Town- Alabama vs. Tennessee • Cause problems so we often use a cultural icon- Cowboy- Jersey Shore • Cultural Realm (geographic)- Merging large cultures together- Anglo-America, Latin America, Europe, Sub-Saharan, Slavic, Sino Japanese, Indic, austral-European
Wine Production per year The distribution of wine production shows the joint impact of the physical environment and social customs.
Hog Production & Food Cultures Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
A social custom originates at a hearth, a center of innovation. • Folk customs tend to have anonymous sources, from unknown dates, through multiple hearths • pop culture generally has a known originator, normally from MDC’s, and results from more leisure time and more capital. • EX: Folk music tells stories or conveys information about daily activities. • That terrible polka music you listen to at a family reunion • Call out songs from slavery, chariot • Pop music is written by specific individuals for the purpose of being sold to a large number of people. • TI, Katy Perry, Gagnam Style
Diffusion of folk and pop culture differs: • Folk customs tend to diffuse slowly and then, primarily through physical relocation of individuals. • Pop customs tend to diffuse rapidly and primarily through hierarchical diffusion from the nodes. (Certain fads can diffuse contagiously)
Questions • Give an example of each region using a global relationship (country) • Draw an example of a cultural Icon for each region • Explain and give a current example of Acculturation- Assimilation- and Transculturation
Popular MusicPopular music is written by specific individuals for the purpose of being sold to a large number of people. It displays a high degree of technical skills and is frequently capable of being performed only in a studio with electronic equipment Origin of Popular music It originated around 1900.The first music industry was developed in New York along the 28th streets between fifth avenue and Broadway, to provide songs for the music hall and vaudeville. This area later came to be known as Tin Pan Alley.Diffusion of American popular music started during the World War II. English became the language of popular music. • Hip Hop A more recent form of popular music. Originated in the south Bronx, New York, in the late 1970’s.It spread to Oakland and Atlanta in the late 1980s.Then to large cities in the South, Midwest and West
Blue Grass • Mumford and Sons • Julia Fallows • Prince Royce • Kpop • Fine China- Chris Brown
Key Issue 2: Why is folk culture clustered? • ISOLATION- promotes cultural diversity as a group’s unique customs develop over several centuries. • Folk culture varies widely from place to place at one time. Since most folk culture deals in some way with the lives and habits of its people, the physical environment in which the people act has a tremendous impact on the culture.
Clustering of Folk Cultures Isolation promotes cultural diversity Himalayan art Influence of the physical environment Distinctive food preferences Folk housing U.S. folk house forms
Himalayan Folk Cultural Regions Cultural geographers have identified four distinct culture regions based on predominant religions in the Himalaya Mountains.
Folk Culture – rapidly changing and/or disappearing throughout much of the world. Guatemalan Market Portuguese Fishing Boat Turkish Camel Market
People living in folk culture are likely to be farmers growing their own food, using hand tools and/or animal power. • Local food preferences are a large part of the folk customs of that region. • Pork vs. Beef, Fish vs. Red Meat, Bread, Chicken etc.. • Religious, social, or economic factors often determine the type and amount of food consumed in a given region.
Hog Production and Food Cultures Fig. 4-6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
FOLK FOOD How did such differences develop?
Housing preference is another major contributor to folk culture. Local traditions, as well as environmental factors determine the type of house that is built in a region.
House Types in Western China Four communities in western China all have distinctive house types.
FOLK ARCHITECTURE Effects on Landscape: usually of limited scale and scope. Agricultural: fields, terraces, grain storage Dwellings: historically created from local materials: wood, brick, stone, skins; often uniquely and traditionally arranged; always functionally tied to physical environment.
The Cultural Landscape and Identity • Land Survey- parceling methods of land • Nucleus- English Settlements including the USA- Nucleus and farm around it • Metes-and-Bounds- Natural boundaries • Leads to issues when the boundaries move • Rectangular land survey- USA after England • Put it on a grid • Long Lot System- found in French areas of the USA and areas the Spanish came • Found with a river at the front for the soil