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Types of Discrimination. De jure segregation : segregation by law De facto segregation: segregation that exists by practice and custom. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Established “separate but equal” under the law. Homer Plessy. Taking on Segregation. WWII sets stage for Civil Rights Movement

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Types of Discrimination

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    1. Types of Discrimination • De jure segregation: segregation by law • De facto segregation: segregation that exists by practice and custom

    2. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Established “separate but equal” under the law Homer Plessy

    3. Taking on Segregation • WWII sets stage for Civil Rights Movement • African Americans working in more jobs • Served in military( eliminated discrimination policy) • FDR publically prohibited discrimination in federal agencies & war work companies

    4. Time to Challenge the Court • NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People • Main group leading the fight for desegregation • Thurgood Marshall: - NAACP attorney - Most well known for key victory in Brown v. Board - 1st African American Supreme court justice

    5. Brown v. Board of Education • 1954: Linda Brown’s father charged school w/violating Linda’s rights by denying entry into school • White school 4 blocks away, black school 21 blocks away • Court ruled in favor of Brown saying the segregated schooling violated 14th Amendment Meant ALL schools must desegregate

    6. Reaction to Brown v. Board Decision • Met with great resistance in many Southern states • Little Rock Nine: 1957, Gov. of Arkansas sent National Guard to keep 9 African American students from entering high school • Eisenhower forced to take control of National Guard • Students received tremendous harassment “The people of Georgia will not comply with the decision of the court….We’re going to do w/e is necessary in Georgia to keep white children in white schools and colored children in colored schools.” ~ Gov. of Georgia (Herman Talmadge)

    7. Continued Desegregation Response to Little Rock Nine: • Sept 1957 Congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1957: gave attorney general greater power over school segregation/ gave federal gov’t more power over violation of African American voting rights • Pushed through by Texas Senator Lyndon B. Johnson

    8. Spark That Lights the Fire • Death of Emmitt Till: August 1955 • 14 years old • From Chicago • Visiting family in Money Mississippi • Supposedly whistled at the white female store clerk • Taken from home, tortured, beaten and killed

    9. Montgomery Bus Boycott • Rosa Parks: refused to give up seat on the bus “It was time for someone to stand up—or in my case, sit down.” • Just the spark needed to get action going • Montgomery Bus Boycott: political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system • 381 days • Martin Luther King, Jr: Civil rights activist and leader • King and 89 other boycott leaders and carpool drivers were indictedfor conspiring to interfere with a business under a 1921 ordinance. • Rather than wait to be arrested, they boldly turned themselves in as an act of defiance.

    10. Groups “Fighting” for Equality • Southern Christian Leadership Conference(SCLC): Nonviolent activists pushing for equality • Founded by MLK, Jr. and others • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC): College group fighting for equality

    11. Movement Spreads • Ways African Americans fought to end segregation • Sit-ins: protesters sitting down and refusing to leave for a cause • Marches • Protests(violent and nonviolent) • First sit in was staged in Chicago at a local diner 1942 • 1960: African American students sat in an all white lunch counter in Greensboro

    12. Greensboro, North Carolina 1963

    13. The Triumphs of a Crusade

    14. Freedom Riders • Freedom rider: a civil rights activists who rode buses through the South in the early 1960s to challenge segregation • Goals • Call attention to the South’s refusal to abandon segregation. • Pressure Federal gov’t to enforce Supreme Court’s desegregation rulings.

    15. Freedom Riders Experience • Met resistance throughout the South • Beaten and arrested • Buses attacked Through it all the riders continued their mission

    16. Integrating Ole Miss • Sept 1962 – James Meredith won federal court case that would allow him to attend all-white University of Mississippi(Ole Miss) • Gov. Barnett refused to let him register • Kennedy order Marshals to escort Meredith to registrar’s office • Riots broke out in protest (2 deaths) • 200 arrests, 15 hours to stop rioters

    17. Birmingham, AL “This is the most segregated city in America.” ~MLK, Jr. • Known for tough segregation & racial violence(18 bombing in 8 yrs.) • MLK, Jr. & others were called down to help with the problems • After days of demonstrations King was arrested and put in jail • Wrote the famous “Letter from Birmingham Jail” • After posting bail he continued lead demonstrations

    18. March on Washington • August 28, 1963 – 250,000 people marched on the nation’s capital • Goal: to spur passage for the civil rights bill • MLK, Jr. “I Have a Dream” speech In your opinion what was MLK, Jr. “American Dream”?

    19. More Violence in Birmingham • 4 Days after King’s speech in Washington 4 young girls were killed when a rider in a car hurled a bomb through their church window. • marked a turning point in the 1960s Civil Rights Movement and contributed to increased support for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964: prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin or religion in public places and most workplaces • Signed by Lyndon B. Johnson • MAJOR turning point in the fight for Civil Rights movement

    20. Tragedy in Dallas • November 22, 1963 President Kennedy and wife Jackie arrive in Texas for meeting • While riding in back seat of convertible Kennedy was shot in the head. • America’s Reaction • As news spread Americans reacted in disbelief • Devastation and anxiety spread

    21. Tragedy in Dallas • Suspect: Lee Harvey Oswald • 24 year old former Marine (dishonorable discharge) • Briefly lived in Soviet Union • While being transferred between jails Oswald was shot by a night club owner – Jack Ruby –who broke the crowd • With so many questions up in the air about this strange event many people began to question if it was a conspiracy • Warren Commission: committee put in place to investigate assassination • Concluded Oswald did shoot and kill Kennedy, acting on his own Conspiracy Theories

    22. Kennedy Funeral • The nation stopped on the day of Kennedy’s funeral to mourn its fallen leader • Televised funeral – historic event Ask parents or grandparents and they all remember where they were the day Kennedy died Jack Kennedy saluting his father’s procession as it passes by

    23. Death of a President • Kennedy’s presidency • Created the Peace Corps: program of volunteer assistance to developing nation of Asia, Africa and Latin America • Pushed to land a man on the moon FIRST • Fought hard against poverty in America • Investigated racial injustices in the South, presenting a civil rights bill to Congress He was the people’s president

    24. In Steps Johnson Lyndon Baines Johnson(LBJ): 36th President of U.S. • Sworn into office aboard Air Force One • Earned a teaching degree in 1930 • Came from lower middle class Texas family • Ambition and drive became legendary Fun Fact To pay for college he took a year off to work at a Mexican American school. Taught public speaking and debate at Sam Houston High School Fought hard for education during his administration Had FDR as his mentor within politics

    25. Building a “Greater Society” • Johnson immediately made an impact with is war on poverty and Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Johnson’s vision summed up into the phrase Great Society • Education: provide federal aid for schools • Healthcare: Established Medicare & Medicaid • Housing: urban renewal • Immigration: Ended the quotas system based on nationality • Environment: Water Quality Act 1965 (clean up rivers) • Consumer Protection: Truth-in-packaging law

    26. More Positives for Johnson’s Great Society • Warren Court • Banned state sanctioned school prayer • Expanded Rights of the Accused (5th Amendment) • Miranda Rights, illegally seized evidence, free legal counsel, lawyer present during questioning • *Impact of Great Society • Changed U.S. forever • Extended the power and reach of the federal government • Poverty from 21% to 11% • national deficit – problem that will continue for decades • Lead to conservative backlash

    27. Freedom Summer • Freedom Summer: campaign to push for passage of voting rights act, focused in Mississippi • College students • Helped people register to vote • Mississippi Burning (Don’t write) • 3 Civil Rights workers disappeared • Later learned that Klansmen and local police had murdered the men

    28. Freedom Summer • Fannie Lou Hammer: became voice of campaign during 1964 Democratic National Convention • Daughter of sharecroppers • Shocked viewers by telling story of the arrest and beating she underwent while trying to register to vote

    29. March from Selma to Montgomery Mar 7, 1965 • Cameras caught the violence that broke out • Americans watched in horror as police officers whipped, beat and gassed the marchers • Led to more protesters coming to Selma for support • Pressured Johnson to pass voting rights act Led to Voting Rights Act of 1965: eliminating all literacy tests that disqualified many voters

    30. Violence Spreads from the South to the North Race riots stretched across the U.S. – 1967 reached 100 difference cities • Malcolm X: Civil Rights activist, supported violent action to win rights • Very intelligent • Got into trouble – 7 years in prison • While in prison discover Nation of Islam • After conflict of interest leaves Nation of Islam • Traveled with body guards after several attempts on his life • Assassinated Feb 16, 1965

    31. Malcolm X • While in prison he turned to Nation of Islam: religious group, a.k.a. Black Muslims • *Promote black separatism & Islamic religion • *Young Malcolm X: White’s the cause of black condition, they need to separate themselves from white society • *Older Malcolm X: Promoted work with world organizations and progressive whites

    32. Black Power • Black Power: Call for black people to begin to define their own goals and lead their own organizations • Coined by Stokely Carmichael • Black Panthers: organization established to fight police brutality in the ghetto • Established by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale

    33. 1968- Turning Point in Civil Rights • King’s Death : shot on hotel balcony by James Earl Ray Apr 3, 1968 • Riots sparked across the nation

    34. Civil Rights Gains • Kerner Commission: Committee put together by Johnson to study urban violence • Found 1 main cause: • Civil Rights Act of 1968: Ended discrimination in housing • Increased high school and college graduation rates • Greater pride in their racial identity • Increase in African Americans within the government • Increased # of registered African American voters White Racism