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The Samanids , Ghaznavids , and Ilkhanids and From Timur to Babur: Empire in Central Asia. HIST 1007 11/15/13. History at the Movies. Kingdom of Heaven (2005) Thur. Nov. 21 st 6-9pm McMicken 53. Return of the Dihqans. Samanids (r. 819-999) Descent from pre-Islamic nobility

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the samanids ghaznavids and ilkhanids and from timur to babur empire in central asia

The Samanids, Ghaznavids, and Ilkhanids and From Timur to Babur: Empire in Central Asia

HIST 1007

11/15/13

history at the movies
History at the Movies
  • Kingdom of Heaven (2005)
  • Thur. Nov. 21st 6-9pm
  • McMicken 53
return of the dihqans
Return of the Dihqans
  • Samanids (r. 819-999)
    • Descent from pre-Islamic nobility
    • Maintained lands in Transoxania
    • Sub-governors under

Tahirids

    • 901 – defeat Saffarids

for control of Khurasan

    • Mixture of Islamic and

Persian identity

    • Ability to deploy local

networks

Monument to Isma`il b. Ahmad al-Samani (r. 892-907), Tajikistan

persian islamic culture
Persian-Islamic Culture
  • Samanid court culture combines pre-Islamic Persian traditions with Islam
  • Samanids rule through mixture of Persian kingship with Muslim piety
  • New Persian – Persian in Arabic script
  • Persian as language of

court and administration

  • Employment of

religious scholars

  • Involvement in war

against steppe Turks

Tomb of Ismail b. Ahmad, Bukhara, Uzbekistan

new persian
New Persian
  • Is it anti-Arab?
  • Shu’ubiyya
  • Translation from Arabic
  • al-Tabari (d. 923), Tarikh

al-Rusulwa al-Muluk (History of

the Prophets and Kings)

  • Bal’ami, Tarikhnama-iTabari

(History of al-Tabari) – written in

963

  • TafsiriTabari

Manuscript of Tarikhnama-iTabari

shahnama
Shahnama
  • “Book of Kings”
  • Stories of pre-Islamic

Persian kings

  • Abu al-QasimFirdawsi (940-1020)
    • 1010 – completes verse

Shahnama

    • 50,000 rhymed verses
    • Becomes national epic of Iran and

neighboring countries

  • Is this anti-Islamic?
  • Is it anti-Arab?
shahnama as mirror for princes
Shahnama as Mirror for Princes
  • Royal farr – divine right of

kings

    • All kings must have it
    • Kings who misbehave can lose it
  • Tales of legendary kings set

the model for rulers both good

and bad

  • Establishes a model of Persian

kingship

  • Not entirely compatible with

Islam

turko persian culture
Turko-Persian Culture
  • Turks entering Islamic world pass through the courts of the Samanids first
  • Ghaznavids (r. 962-1186): Samanidghulams turned rulers of Afghanistan and Khurasan
    • Adoption of Persian as courtly language
    • Adoption of Persian dress and culture
    • Actual patrons of the

Shahnama?!?

  • Persian kingship

another ideal for Turkic

sultans to live up to.

Mahmud of Ghazna (r. 997-1030) in his

court.

steppe peoples and turko persian culture
Steppe Peoples and Turko-Persian Culture
  • Experience of ruling

Transoxania and Khurasan

  • Incorporation of Persian

advisors

    • Seljuqs and Nizam al-Mulk
  • Over time, not just a shared

culture

  • Shared story of transition from

nomadic tribalism to empire

  • Turkic-Mongol social organization

combined with Persianate-Islamic

institutions and culture

turko persian culture and the mongols
Turko-Persian Culture and the Mongols
  • Mongol destruction of Central Asia
  • Calculated frightfulness
  • Il-Khanids – not immediately interested in Islam and

Muslim traditions

    • Golden Horde (Kipchak) and

Chagatai Khanates convert first

    • Early favoritism towards

Christians and Buddhists

    • Turko-Persian culture comes

first

Chinggis Khan remembered as Persian Shah

turko mongol traditions
Turko-Mongol Traditions
  • Lineage of Chinggis Khan – new source of legitimacy
  • Chagatay (son) and the Chagatay Khanate (r. 1225-1687) – Central Asia
  • Jochi (son) and the Golden Horde (Kipchak

Khanate) (r. 1240’s-1502) – Russia and Siberia

  • Hulagu (grandson) and

the Il-khanids

(r. 1256-1335) –

Iraq, Iran, and Anatolia

timurids r 1370 1507
Timurids (r. 1370-1507)
  • Moghulistan – “Land of the

Mongols” – modern Kazakhstan

  • Turkified Mongols
  • Turko-Persian culture
  • Timur (Tamerlane)

(r. 1370-1405)

    • Dream of recreating empire of

Chinggis Khan

    • Not a Chinggisid
    • Islam as part of legitimization
    • “Sword of Islam”
timur the mongol
Timur the Mongol
  • Emir Timur not Timur Khan
  • Suyurghatmish (r. 1370-1384) –

Khan of the Western Chagatai

Khanate, Chinggisid

  • SarayMulkKhanum

(ca. 1343-1406) – Wife of Timur,

Chinggisid

  • Son-in-law State
  • Tokhtamysh-Timur War

(1380’s-1390’s) – Timur battles Golden

Horde for steppe supremacy

timur the turko persian
Timur the Turko-Persian
  • Samarqand – Timur’s capital
    • Silk Road entrepot
    • Samanidcapital (along with Bukhara)
  • 1383-1387 – Conquest of Iran
  • Isfahan – surrenders and later

revolts

    • Timur massacres 100,000-200,000

people

    • 28 towers of glowing heads
    • Systematic – spares artists and engineers
  • Transformation of Samarqand
  • de Clavijo (d. 1412): Ambassador from

Castile

timur the muslim
Timur the Muslim
  • Can’t become caliph
  • Ordained by God with supernatural

personal power

  • Conquest is proof he is favored

by God

  • “I am not a man of blood; and

God is my witness that in all my

wars I have never been the

aggressor, and that my enemies

have always been the authors of

their own calamity.”

timur the muslim1
Timur the Muslim
  • 1399-1402 – conquest of Anatolia, Iraq, and Syria
  • Wars with Mamluks and early Ottomans to restore Seljuq authority
  • Removes Knights Hospitaller from Smyrna
  • Ghazi – Holy warrior
  • Establishment of mosques

and madrassas

  • Sayyid Baraka (1343-1403):

Sufi teacher, buried next to

Timur