I. Europeans Explore Asia • Prior to 1400s, Europeans had little interest or ability to explore far-off, foreign lands • The ideas and events of the Renaissance stirred European unrest/curiosity • 3 motivating factors: • 1) Economic motivations (wanted to be rich) • Spices/luxury items from Asia were introduced during the Crusades • Trade took place between Italian and Muslim merchants who charged high prices • European merchants looked for a direct route to Asia to secure items at lower cost • 2) Spread of Christianity • Many Europeans felt it was their duty to convert non-Christians CHALLENGE QUESTION!
I. Continued… • 3 motivating factors (continued…) • 3) New technologies • New ships (caravels) were faster, sturdier, and could sail against the wind • Magnetic compass and astrolabe allowed for better navigation, map making • Portugal first to embrace and pursue exploration • First to establish trading outposts along African coast • Supported by Prince Henryof Portugal • Founded navigation school, supported explorers financially
I. Continued… • 1488 – Portuguese sailors rounded tip of Africa, began exploring east Africa • 1498 – Vasco da Gamatravelled to Calcuta, India • Spain was jealous of Portugal’s success • Sent Christopher Columbussearching for a route to Asia in 1492 • Rivalry between Spain and Portugal grew tense • Pope Alexander VI suggested created a dividing line that split the world • Signed the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 • Dividing line ran north-south, gave Spain all lands west, Portugal all lands east
Map of Conquest, 1494-1506 Source - http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture14/fig_14-1.html
II. Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean • After da Gama’s voyage, Portugal established a thriving trading empire throughout Indian Ocean • Seized control of spice trade from Muslim merchants • Captured trading ports in Middle East, India, East Indies (modern-day Malaysia and Indonesia) • Prices for Asian goods dropped in Europe, access increased • Success of Portuguese attracted other European countries to area • Around 1600, Dutch and English challenged Portuguese dominance • Established East India Companies to trade with Asia • Could mint money, make treaties, establish armies • Would lay the foundation for colonies later • Dutch and English remained dominant forces into modern times
Dutch Empire,17th – 19thcenturies. British Empire, early 20th century
II. Continued… • Competition between European nations eventually leads to worldwide conflict – Seven Years’ War • End of War gives British control over vast territory • Europeans controlled many Asian ports, but influence was limited • Small groups converted to Christianity, but majority of populations remained elusive • Chinese and Japanese governments implement policiesof isolation to limit European influence
EXIT TICKET • What role did religion play for the Europeans during the Age of Exploration? • Describe a piece of technology that allowed Europeans to go out and explore. • Who was the first person to round the southern tip of Africa? • Christopher Columbus • Vasco da Gama • Prince Henry • What did the Treaty of Tordesillas do?
III. China During the Age of Exploration • Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) • Founded by Hongwu in 1368, originally a peasant • Sought to restore power of China, erase Mongol past • Encouraged return to Confucian ideas, restored examination system • Eventually became a tyrant, killing thousands of government officials suspected of plotting against him • Yonglo, son of Hongwu, continued many policies of his father • Began short-lived Chinese age of exploration • Zheng He led all voyages • Explored as far as West Africa, established a system of tribute in more than 16 countries • “Treasure Fleet” voyages mysteriously ended in 1433 CHALLENGE QUESTION!
III. Continued… • Trade and commerce become highly regulated • Confucian beliefs argued against idea of commerce, trade for profit • Economic policies favored agriculture, not external trade • Fear of outside (European) influence • Policy of isolation had unintended consequences • Lack of technological progress – Europeans and others developed better weapons, navigation tools over time • Limited access to resources in times of need • Society falls into disrepair – money spent on defense not on supporting population • Fall of Ming Dynasty caused by civil unrest, brought on by problems associated with isolation policy
IV. Japan Becomes Isolated • 1400s – civil war had disrupted centralized Japanese leadership • With centralized power gone, feudalism became dominant system • Regional warlords (daimyo) held real power, emperor had little say • Warlords relied on samuraito protect land and control peasant population • European contact began mid-16th century • Brought new technologies, ideas • Guns, printing press, mechanical clocks
IV. Continued… • Brought new technologies, ideas (continued…) • Christian missionaries attempted to convert • Some early success, many people were interested Western ideas • But, by late 16th century, Christian missionaries and converts were being actively persecuted • Thought to be a threat to the social order • Isolation • By mid-17th century, Japanese ships forbidden to sail overseas • Outsiders limited to port of Nagasaki – only Dutch and Chinese merchants • For more than 200 years, Japan was basically closed to Europeans and the West
CHALLENGE QUESTION! • Make a prediction (or three)! • What do you think motivated the Europeans to go out and explore the world? • List and explain at least three possible motivating factors. • Complete sentences! BACK
CHALLENGE QUESTION! • After the Ming dynasty ended the voyages of the “Treasure Fleet”, China begin to enforce a policy of isolation. • What factors might have motivated China into isolating themselves from the rest of the world? • What might be the positive and negative consequences of such a policy? • Complete sentences, at least a paragraph. BACK