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Energy Use and Pollution

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  1. Energy Use and Pollution The Central Challenge of Our Time Eng Phys EP 3ES3

  2. Energy Modes • Electricity Generation • Transportation • Direct Heating • Industrial Use

  3. Energy Production and Use -Impacts by Environmental Medium • Air –Thermal/Meteorological, Chemical, Radioactive • Water – Chemical, Thermal/Aquatic, Radioactive • Land – Radioactive, Chemical, Bulk Wastes

  4. Air Impacts “Air Pollution” Direct chemical impacts - short and long term “Climate Change” Indirect impacts – long term, global warming/meteorological instability

  5. Air Pollution • SOx • NOx • O 3 • CO • Particulate matter, total, inhalable, respirable • Organics • Metals • Toxics

  6. How Does Poor Air Quality Affect Us? • Human Health Impacts • Odors and Eye Irritation • Poor Visibility and Haze • Property Damage • Community Perception Issues • Direct and Indirect Economic Costs • Damage to Natural Ecosystems

  7. The Problem Health Impacts of Air Pollutants in Hamilton Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003

  8. Health Impacts in Hamilton – by Air Pollutant Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003

  9. Traffic Exposure and Myocardial Infarction (Higher Impacts on Women and Over 60s) Exposure to Traffic and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction, A. Peters et al, NEJM, Oct 21, 2004

  10. Level of Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and the Risk of Death from Cardiovascular Causes in Women Miller KA et al. N Engl J Med 2007;356:447-458

  11. Electricity Generation • Long Range Transport of Air Pollutants

  12. Hamilton, Ontario

  13. Air Emissions by Electricity Generation Method

  14. Fossil Fuel Power Plants % of U.S. Total Emissions • 67 % of sulfur dioxide emissions • 23 % of nitrogen oxide emissions • 40 % of man-made carbon dioxide emissions

  15. Ontario Coal Fired Generating Stations – Health Impacts in Ontario • 668 premature deaths, • 928 hospital admissions • 1,100 emergency room visits per year

  16. Why don’t we just add a few more nuclear stations?

  17. Risk Management • Hazard • Risk = Hazard x probability • Outrage = Risk perception x hazard • Risk Analysis, including ranking • Risk Management, education/marketing, prioritized actions, review

  18. Ontario's Electricity Generation Mix Fuel Type - Ontario % of Total

  19. Ontario Clean Air Plan for Electricity Generation Close coal-fired generating stations • Reduces greenhouse gas emissions in Canada by up to 30 megatonnes a year • Equivalent to taking seven million cars off the road or removing every car and small truck in Ontario • Meets half of the province’s greenhouse-gas-reduction contributions under the Kyoto Protocol .

  20. Ontario Clean Air Plan for Electricity Generation • Nuclear - Bruce Power refurbish two laid- up nuclear reactors, 1,500 megawatts. • OPG to refurbish existing nuclear facilities at Pickering B. • Limiting the future use of nuclear power to today's installed capacity level of 14,000 megawatts. • Cleaner (Gas Fired) - 7,500 megawatts of cleaner, more diversified power. • Doubling the amount of electricity drawn from renewable sources, bringing the total to 15,700 megawatts by 2025. • Adding $400 M to double the conservation efforts for a total of $550 M, targeting to reduce electricity demand by 6,300 megawatts by 2025. • Expanding the transmission capacity from Bruce County and surrounding area to facilitate the transmission of electricity from several new wind farms and the Bruce facility to Ontario homes and businesses.

  21. Smart Electricity Meters • 800,000 smart meters by December 31, 2007, all Ontario customers by December 31, 2010. • Cost $1Bn • Cost per customer $3-4 per month

  22. Air Pollution Exposures in Hamilton • Long Range Transport + Local Sources • Mobile Monitoring Study to Identify and Rank Local Sources 2005 - 2007

  23. Mobile Command Centre

  24. NO ppb Wind

  25. Stoplight Idling – Concentrations Downwind

  26. Burlington St. Upwind Downwind

  27. High Pollution Triangle, Samples of Modeled Impacts of Traffic Pollutants, (Julie Wallace, Ph.D. Centre for Spatial Analysis, McMaster University)

  28. NO March 9th 2007 Traffic Traffic Industry Traffic

  29. McMaster Model – Rotek Mobile Data Monitoring/Modeling Interaction

  30. Health Impacts in Hamilton – by Air Pollutant Sahsuvaroglu & Jerrett 2003

  31. Traffic Exposure and Myocardial Infarction (Higher Impacts on Women and Over 60s) Exposure to Traffic and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction, A. Peters et al, NEJM, Oct 21, 2004

  32. Vehicle Idling outside Schools“Natural Experiment”

  33. Morning – Idling Vehicles

  34. Natural Experiment ppb

  35. Monitoring Vehicle at School

  36. Afternoon – Vehicle Engines Off

  37. Transportation

  38. Denis Corr, Michael Cho Engineering Physics, McMaster U. Ontario Ministry of Environment An Evaluation of Hybrid Vehicle Use in a Canadian Fleet Environment Honda Insight Toyota Prius

  39. Fuel consumption statistics

  40. City of Hamilton Analysis Lifetime Cost Comparison5 yr total costs, including lease and fuel

  41. Fuel Economy, Actual, vs. Manufacturer’s Projections • Honda projected Insight to have 50% better fuel economy than Prius, however over 1 year normal fleet operation, fuel economies were comparable.

  42. Drive Clean Emission Testing • MOE Fleet average Drive Clean Test results. • Honda Insight and Toyota Prius Drive Clean Test results.

  43. NuVehicle Program Trend 2002 • Vehicle purchases by organizations, MOE, City of Hamilton, Hamilton Hydro

  44. NuVehicle Program Trend 2006 • Vehicle purchases by organizations, MOE, City of Hamilton, Hamilton Hydro

  45. Climate Change • Doesn’t matter where CO2 is released • NOAA index has increased 20% since 1990 • U.S. refuses to sign on to Kyoto agreement • Coal is most abundant/cheapest fossil fuel available