Creek Indian Civilization and Creek Indian Wars. Creek Lands. Background Information on the Creeks. Also know as the Muscogee Name came from the shortening of the “ Ocheese Creek” (Ocmulgee River) Union of several tribes confederacy
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Creek Indian Civilization and Creek Indian Wars
Background Information on the Creeks • Also know as the Muscogee • Name came from the shortening of the “Ocheese Creek” (Ocmulgee River) • Union of several tribes confederacy • Member tribes called tribal towns political autonomy Geographic Divisions Upper Creeks- Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers - traditional way of life Lower Creeks-Chattahoocee and Flint Rivers -more intermarriage with the whites - huge impact on political and social order
Town Make Up Italwa- large permanent towns Talofa- smaller outlying villages (associated with larger town) Pascova- plazas (open areas) 1. Used for dancing, religious ceremonies and games 2. Location of town councils 3. Surrounding the pascova were the homes of the Indians.
Creek Indian Towns • 400-600 people in the town, town would split, with about half moving to a nearby site • The new towns would have a “mother-daughter” relationship with the original town (how confederacies were formed) • Matrilineal society- mother is the main authority in the family
Creek Indian Wars Oconee War • During the late 1700’s, white settlers began to push into Creek lands, bad feelings started to arise along the Oconee River. -White settlers began to shoot Creeks on site • Creek Chief that intervened and supported the Creeks in their effort to keep the land was Alexander McGillivray
Alexander McGillivray • 1750-1793 • Creek Indian Chief • Grew up in Creek and white society (mom was Creek, dad was white) • Initiated reforms within the Creek society -created centralized power in Creek nation • Used trade to increase his own position on the Southern frontier. • Used European influence to protect Creek interests - Treaty of New York (1790)
The Treaty of New York (1790) McGuillivray met with George Washington to discuss a peace negotiation over the Oconee Wars What did it do? • Creeks gave up land east of the Oconee River • U.S. promised no settlers West of the Oconee River *Both sides ignored the treaty*
Georgia’s War of 1812(Creek Indian Civil War) Red Stick Creeks (warring Creeks) vs. White Stick Creeks (peaceful Creeks) Fort Mims Massacre Battle of Horseshoe Bend
The Fort Mims Massacre (1813) • 1000 Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims (Alabama) killing 400-500 settlers , army officers, and White Sticks • The Red Sticks’ victory spread panic throughout the Southeastern United States frontier • Made the Creek Civil War a war between the United States and the Red Stick warriors of the Upper Creek Nation. (Why is this?)
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814) • Located on the Tallapoosa River • Jackson, with the help of Lower Creek and Cherokee Indians as well as his own forces gained control of the barricade and slaughtered the Red Creek Indians that were there Video: http://www.pbs.org/kcet/andrewjackson/video/
Battle of Horseshoe Bend’s Significance • Upper Creek power was broken • Creek Civil War came to a close • Creeks were forced to give up more than 23 million acres of their homeland and move farther west • The land taken from them was good for growing cotton which helped to further the need for slavery-antebellum period • Andrew Jackson became a legend
The Monroe Doctrine (1823) • The Western Hemisphere was off limits to further colonization • The United States would not be involved in internal European affairs * ISOLATIONISM*-not interfering in other countries affairs.* James Monroe (5th president)
Why the Need for the Monroe Doctrine? • In the early 1800’s, a number of colonies in Latin America gained independence from their European controllers. • United States President James Monroe believed that by making connections with the new nations, both the political and economic influence of the U.S. would increase. (Spheres of Influence) (This relates to what theory we learned about last unit?) • Wars in Europe- Monroe did not want to get the United States involved in these matters
Analyzing Political Cartoons- The Monroe Doctrine What things stick out to you in this picture? Who do you think each person in the cartoon represents? What do you feel the cartoon is attempting to say to the viewer? Does this political cartoon represent the Monroe Doctrine? Why or why not?
1. What is happening in the cartoon? 2. Who does the figure in the foreground represent? 3. Who are the figures in the background? See if you can read the names of nations. 4. What is the message of the cartoon?
1. Describe what is happening in this cartoon. 2. Who is the figure on the right? 3. Who are the two figures on the left? 4. What is the figure on the right pointing to? 5. What is the message of the cartoon?
Cartoon #1 Answers 1. A rooster is guarding a chicken coop by marching back and forth in front of it. 2. The United States 3. European nations, Italy, Germany, England, France. 4. The U.S. has locked up the European nations with the Monroe Doctrine, which states that the Western Hemisphere is off limits to European settlement. Cartoon #2 Answers 1. A man is stopping two men from crossing a line. 2. Uncle Sam, representing the U.S. 3. Great Britain and Germany. 4. The line which says “Monroe Doctrine”. 5. European nations need to stay behind the line of the Monroe Doctrine which blocks their entry into Latin America.
References Slide 2: http://www.aaanativearts.com/georgia-tribes-map.jpg http://www.perdidobaytribe.org/creek_village.jpg Slide 7: http://images.encyclopedia.com/getimage.aspx?id=2800059&hero=yes Slide 8: Slide 2: http://www.aaanativearts.com/georgia-tribes-map.jpg http://www.perdidobaytribe.org/creek_village.jpg Slide 7: http://images.encyclopedia.com/getimage.aspx?id=2800059&hero=yes Slide 8: http://www.n-georgia.com/images/oconee-river-map.jpg
References- Horseshoe Bend • http://www.pbs.org/kcet/andrewjackson/video/ • http://www.reisenett.no/map_collection/National_parks/Horseshoe_Bend_map.jpg • http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/54horseshoe/54images/54cover.jpg • http://www.nps.gov/history/nR/publications/bulletins/nrb40/bat7.jpg
References- Monroe Doctrine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monroe_Doctrine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jamesmonroe-npgallery.jpg http://wiserblog.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/monroe_doctrine.jpg Political Cartoons: http://multimedialearningllc.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/monroe-doctrine-cartoons.pdf
Review of Yesterday • Creek Indian society background - composition of the Creek society - Creek Indian towns • Creek Indian Wars - Oconee War - Alexander McGillivray - Treaty of New York (1790) • Creek Indian Civil War -Fort Mims Massacre -Significance - Battle of Horseshoe Bend - Significance • The Monroe Doctrine
The Treaty of Indian springs (1825) William McIntosh • Lower Creek chief • “White Warrior” • Mother was Creek and father was white • Supported the U.S.’s attempts to gain Indian land • Well connected in the government of Georgia (many relatives were high officials)
The Treaty of Indian spring (1825) George Troup • Cousin of William McIntosh • Governor of Georgia during this treaty • Aggressive policy towards Indian removal
The treaty of Indian Springs (1825) • Chief William McIntosh and Governor George Troup (cousins) arranged to have Creek lands given to GA • Sold all of the remaining Creek land (southwest Georgia) • Many Creeks were unhappy with the selling of the land • McIntosh was murdered in his home in Carroll County.
The Treaty of Washington (1826) • Nullified the “false” Treaty of Indian Springs • Gave all Creek land on the east of the Chattahoochee River to the United States • Treaty was broken almost immediately (frontiersmen burned and looted Indian homes) • The army intervened and aided the removal to Oklahoma • The end of Creeks in Georgia
The Dahlonega Gold Rush • 1828 • Almost 20 years before the California Gold Rush (1849) • Gold found by Benjamin Parks • Land owned by the Cherokee • Auraria- first gold mining center in the United States. • Push to forced Cherokee off that land
Andrew Jackson • Elected in 1828 • Very proud man (often got into fights in order to defend his honor) • War hero • “Represented the common man” • Thought of the Indians as “…children in need of guidance.” • Known for his involvement in Indian Removal • http://www.history.com/video.do?name=americanhistory&bcpid=1676043206&bclid=1716449817&bctid=1534506111 Andrew Jackson 7th President
The Indian Removal Act (1830) • Authorized Jackson to transfer Indian tribes east of the Mississippi River to the western territories (Oklahoma) promised to them 5 Groups Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole • The removal was supposed to be voluntary and peaceful, and it was that way for the tribes that agreed to the conditions • http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/18023-america-under-andrew-jackson-the-indian-removal-act-video.htm
Missionaries to Georgia Samuel Worcester and Elizur Butler Samuel Worcester • Preacher to the Cherokees • Known as “The Messenger” • Good friends with Elias Boudinot - Developed the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper with Boudinot • Sought to use the Cherokee Phoenix to promote a Cherokee Nation Elizur Butler • Preacher and physician to the Creek Indians • Involved in the Hawais mission 1830- Georgia passed a law stating that any white person could not live on Indian land without taking an “oath of allegiance” *Worcester and Butler were arrested for failing to take the oath*
Worester vs. Georgia (1832) • The arrests of Worcester and Butler were the basis for this case • Georgia ignored the Supreme Court’s decision • President Jackson did not support the ruling either, and pressed for the Cherokees to remove themselves from the land • “John Marshall has rendered his decision; now let him enforce it!” –Jackson Chief Justice John Marshall
References • Gold Rush Slide: http://web03.bestplaces.net/city/Dahlonega_GA.gif • http://www.us-coin-values-advisor.com/images/Half-Eagle-1838-D.jpg • http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Lake/4713/bparksjr.jpg
References • Jackson slide: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Andrew_Jackson.jpg • http://www.history.com/video.do?name=americanhistory&bcpid=1676043206&bclid=1716449817&bctid=1534506111 • Worcester picture: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4e/Worcester.jpg/225px-Worcester.jpg • Marshall picture: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-7687
Cherokee Indian Society • Matrilineal Society • Confederacy of States made up the nation • The Cherokee settlements looked very much like a ‘fort’ or ‘town’ with several ‘log cabins’, small gardens, fruit trees, and a central ‘long house’ on a raised mound for gatherings and decision making. • The Long House, or Council House, was also used for religious functions, such as weddings and festivals. • 1800s- began to adopt white culture • - Government • - Dress • - Home building techniques • - Farming techniques Hothouses- dome shaped houses (winter houses)
Cherokee Attempts to Co-Exist with Settlers 1. Large Scale Farming A. Adopted European methods of growing crops B. Used modern equipment 2. Americanized Education A. Young Cherokee sent to eastern boarding schools B. Learned English and many other common subjects 3. Adopted Christianity A. Missionaries 4. Written Constitution A. 1827 B. Declared their status as a sovereign nation 5. Written language and newspaper A. Cherokee syllabary B. Only Indian tribe with a written language C. 1828- Cherokee Phoenix published
Question When you get home from school today, the authorities tell you and your family that you have to leave your home immediately. The reason you have to leave is because the government wants your home. You can take nothing but the clothes you have on your back. Question: How would this make you feel? Do you think this would be a just reason in forcing you to leave your home? Why or why not?
The Trail of Tears 1838-1839
Chief John Ross • First and only elected Chief of the Cherokee Nation • Fought against Indian removal • Helped to organize the Cherokee nation - Wrote Constitution - Election of a Principal Chief • Protested to the national government selling Cherokee lands in the 1832 land lottery-won but was not enforced • Protested the Treaty of New Echota but was ignored by Jackson
The Treaty of New Echota (1835) • Cherokees refused to leave their homes when the Indian Removal Act was signed • A select group of Cherokees (Major and John Ridge, Elias Boudinot and Stand Watie (Ridge’s nephews)) signed the Treaty of New Echota • The treaty exchanged the title to all Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi for $5 million and a large piece of land in Oklahoma. • PROBLEM: There were only a select few that signed the treaty, not the majority of the Cherokee death warrant • Ridge and his followers left (2000) 15000 stayed Trail of Tears
Treaty of New Echota Traitors John Ridge Major Ridge Elias Boudinot Stand Watie
The Trail of Tears • General Winfield Scott ordered to remove the remaining 15,000 Cherokee • Placed in stockades where hundreds died of illness (internment camps) • Two routes taken • Crowded boats using a river passage • 800 mile walk to new Indian territory - Food was scare - Starvation and illness Emigrated-move out or away from ANuna-da-ut-sun’y- “The trail where they cried”
Trail of Tears Map • http://www.evgschool.org/south_unlabeled_small1.gif