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Management Style: Leadership

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  1. Management Style: Leadership Lecture 4: Managing People & Organisations 21 October 2013

  2. Describe what makes a good leader • Compare and contrast Leadership and management • Discuss contemporary issues in Leadership Learning outcomes

  3. A critical element of organisational effectiveness • Army • Orchestra • Street gang • Hockey team • Multinational company Leadership

  4. What does leadership mean to you • What • Skills • Ability • Personality traits would a leader possess? • Who would you say is a great leader and why? • 10 mins Activity

  5. CIPD (2012) suggest • Not just about the elite few, we are all at some point leaders • Successful leaders do not behave in same way all time • Different qualities are needed in different circumstances • No single template of leadership behaviour • It is controversial and much researched! What is leadership?

  6. Activity • What do you think is the difference? • 10 Mins Management vs. leadership

  7. Managing • Planning, organisation, coordination, implementation in a rational manner. Rather administrative. • Leadership idea started about 1960, there is more to managing than just administrating • World is getting very competitive, fast paced, lots of change, less predictable marketplace Management vs. leadership

  8. Management style today has shifted from ‘controlling’ to a more ‘integrated’ approach – flatter structures and flexible working patterns • Managers will display their management style through their own conditioning and belief system, how they view their position and that of their subordinates. Management

  9. What are the differences between Leadership and Management? The Leader Visionary Passionate Creative Inspiring Innovative Imaginative Courageous Personal power The Manager Rational Consulting Persistent Problem solving Analytical Structured Authoritative Power position

  10. The neat conceptual difference between manager and leader does not translate into practice • The effective manager will at some point need some leadership skills • It has been highlighted that individuals need to demonstrate both management and leadership qualities if long term business objectives are to be reached • Ethical leadership? • Authentic leadership? • Distributed leadership Management vs. leadership

  11. Leadership deemed to be involved at developing an initial vision and inspiring others how the vision may be achieved. Interpersonal behaviour in a broader context. • Management involves the translation of this vision into reality, by planning organising and implementing the people on a day by day basis. Getting things done through other people in order to achieve organisational objectives. If it helps.....

  12. But • The characteristics of the leader • The attitudes and needs of the followers • The nature of the organisation (purpose, structure, tasks) • The LEPEST environment • Leadership is a complex relationship between all these variables Leadership is not the property of an individual......

  13. Mullins (2010) ‘is a relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other people’ • Also ‘leaders both motivate employees and design effective organisations. There are two broad conceptions of what leaders do – they motivate their followers and they design organisational contexts to enable their followers to function effectively’ Leadership definition

  14. CEO as superhero? Although one person can not do it all it is true that the CEO is critical • the strategic leader must have the ability to: • see the point • sense relationships and analogies quickly • identify the essentials in a complex picture • put two and two together • find the salient factors in past experience • be able to distinguish clearly between ends and means • appraise situations readily • see their significance in the total setting of present and past experience • take the cue as to the likely line of wise action • Adair 2002 Strategic Leadership

  15. The notion of Leadership teams is gaining acceptance • Qualities more likely to be found in a team • They then must work as a team • Pulling in same direction rather than individuals with own priorities and agendas Leadership teams

  16. To examine leadership it is helpful to use some frameworks • Qualities approach • Functional approach • Styles of Leadership • Contingency theories • There is not one single style of leader appropriate to all situations • Transitional or transformational leadership • Inspiration/visionary leadership Approaches to leadership

  17. Assumes leaders are born not made • The Great Person Theory of Leadership • What qualities has the man or woman got? Characteristics /traits that you are born with • Attempts at identifying common characteristics of successful leaders have met with little success! • Limitations • Traits ignores the situational factors • Too many possible traits • Subjective as to what constitutes good leaders Qualities approach

  18. Attention is on what functions the leader does • Assumes leadership skills can be learned and developed • People with potential - expose them to different career experiences • A common functional approach is Action centred leadership, John Adair • The need to achieve the task • The need for team maintenance • Individual needs of group members Functional approach

  19. Autocratic • Democratic • Paternalistic • Laissez-faire Types of Leadership Style

  20. One of the best known works on leadership style • 1973 • Continuum model • shows the relationship between the levels of freedom that a manager chooses to give to a team, and the level of authority used by the manager • Successful leaders are able to behave appropriately in terms of understanding their environment, themselves, the group, the followers, the organisation Tannenbaum and Schmidt

  21. A major variable in the style of leadership adopted by a leader is the nature of the subordinate • Are they willing? • Are they able? • In essence choose the most appropriate leadership style, consider the ability of the subordinate and how willing they are to have a go Hersey and Blanchard

  22. How much instruction you need to give to subordinates (horizontal)? • How much social back up a leader needs to give to subordinates (vertical)? • Directing: tell people what to do, little relationship behaviour • Delegating: not much task or relationship behaviour • Supporting: lots of relationship support, no direction on task, they know what they are doing • Coaching: lots of relationship support and task direction Situational Leadership

  23. Leadership style may be dependent on various factors: • Risk - decision making and change initiatives • Type of business – creative business or supply driven? • How important change is – change for change’s sake? • Organisational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change • Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure? Factors Affecting Style

  24. Do not forget what we learnt last week about power • Coercive • Reward • Position • Legitimate • Expert • a leader can use these to affect the behaviours /actions of others • They may also have ‘connection’ power Power

  25. As competition has increased attention has been paid to how to transform organisations • This created the distinction of • Transactional leaders • Transformational leaders Transactional and transformational leadership

  26. These are charismatic individuals who inspire others to work ‘beyond contract’ • People will make more effort for a transformational leader (more performance) • This leadership can awaken followers’ interest in achieving objectives • Visionary, charismatic, confident, optimistic, inspirational, motivational, lead by example Transformational Leadership

  27. The new concept of leadership is ‘vision’ • Ability to see the bigger picture • Enabling total involvement of your subordinates (to get performance) • Unlock the potential in everyone else • Think! Too often a charismatic leader, attempts to inspire at the delight of a vision, at the expense of real substance! • Think: as hierarchies break down in companies, is it leaders that are filling the void, helping staff to find their place and purpose? Is personal leadership beginning to replace organisational structure? Visionary /charismatic leadership

  28. Innovation is important in the market place of today • The impact of leadership on innovation goes much further than being inspirational/charismatic • Leaders must create organisational structure and culture that allows innovation to flourish • Activity: 5 mins • What do you think a leader could do to hinder innovation? Leadership and innovation

  29. A shift in focus – many theorists (Hickman 1998, Mullins 2007, Raynor 2008) argue that the change to a more dynamic, rapidly changing market place, with shifts in working conditions, will need visionary and inspirational styles of leadership • Because – autocratic, task orientated styles of leadership only encourage compliance • The transformational leader – encourages initiative, commitment, flexibility and high performance. • Mullins 2008 Leadership of future

  30. Under Norwegian law women must make up to 40% of the board • In February 2012 Lord Davies set UK businesses a voluntary target to increase the number of women on the board to at least 25% by 2012 • If progress was not made , this would be made mandatory • Progress is slow. October 2011 only 14.21 of FTSE 100 board members were female • Activity Why do you think women can make good leaders? Women as leaders

  31. What do you think are the Leadership Competencies of the future? • 10 mins Activity

  32. Case study Activity

  33. Describe what makes a good leader • Compare and contrast Leadership and management • Discuss contemporary issues in Leadership Learning outcomes

  34. Additional useful reading for leadership • need to log in to CIPD) • • Homework