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Pages 268-291. Chapter 8: The Road to War. Please complete and glue into your notebook:. Massachusetts. Spain. No. Massachusetts. Lesson 1: Trouble over Taxes p. 268-273. EQ: How did British taxes lead to greater cooperation among the colonies? Vocabulary: Parliament Stamp Act Repeal

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please complete and glue into your notebook
Please complete and glue into your notebook:





lesson 1 trouble over taxes p 268 273
Lesson 1: Trouble over Taxesp. 268-273
  • EQ: How did British taxes lead to greater cooperation among the colonies?
  • Vocabulary:
    • Parliament
    • Stamp Act
    • Repeal
    • Sons of Liberty
    • Townshend Acts
    • Tariff
    • Boycott
    • Daughters of Liberty
  • Causes of the American Revolution
  • George Washington
complete wb p 66 for a grade
Complete WB p. 66 for a grade







Colonists refused to pay the tax and threatened those who tried to collect it.

Colonists did not want to pay a tax to Britain; They boycotted imported goods and/or began to make their own (tea, wool, etc)

Tensions increased between Britain and the colonies.

lesson 2 the colonists rebel p 276 282
Lesson 2: The Colonists Rebelp. 276-282
  • EQ: How did the events in Boston bring Britain and Boston closer to war?
  • Vocabulary:
    • Boston Massacre
    • Committee of Correspondence
    • Tea Act
    • Boston Tea Party
    • Intolerable Acts
    • Patriots
    • Loyalists
    • First Continental Congress
    • Militia
    • Minutemen
chapter 8 lesson 2 notes
Chapter 8 Lesson 2 Notes
  • How did events in Boston bring Britain and the colonies closer to war?
  • British soldier presence leads to Boston Massacre on 3/5/1770 killing 5 people including Crispus Attucks; soldiers found not guilty of murder. Townshend Acts repealed in 1770 except on tea. Committee of Correspondence (1772) united colonies over news/action to take, inspiring Boston Tea Party in 12/16/1773.
  • Intolerable Acts returned British soldiers to Boston, MA under control of Thomas Gage, and port of Boston closed. Patriots and Loyalists evolve. First Continental Congress establishes militia (minutemen). Patrick Henry rallies support by 1775 against King George III.
what are political or editorial cartoons
What are Political or Editorial Cartoons?
  • A drawing that describes an event that happened in history based on the cartoonists' opinion; often used to persuade/educate an illiterate population
  • Includes exaggeration, humor, or varying perspective on an historical event.
political cartoon
Political Cartoon

Who made this political cartoon?

Benjamin Franklin

Why did this appear in the Pennsylvania Gazette?

May 9, 1754: Attempt to encourage colonists to manage Indian relations and defense against the French during the French and Indian War

What is the cartoonist trying to express?

New England is united/head of the snake; Georgia/Delaware absent

1754: Organized action of British colonies against the French & Indians

1765: Organized action in protest to the Stamp Act and colonial unity against the British


What is taking place in this picture?

  • Boston Massacre
  • Paul Revere, 1770
  • Why do you think the event was referred to as a “massacre?”
  • 5 people died; “intentional use of violence against unarmed colonists”
  • Based on this representation, what does it tell you about how the British soldiers responded to colonists who protested in Revolutionary times?
  • Organized, violent, forceful, disrespectful
famous revolutionary war political cartoon
Famous Revolutionary War Political Cartoon

What is being expressed in the following cartoon? How do you know?

Colonists protesting the presence of tax collectors

Holding tax collector against his will, tarred & feathered, Noose foreshadows hanging

political cartoon activity
Political Cartoon Activity
  • You must select ONE idea from Lessons 1 or 2 from Chapter 8.
  • Consider topics found under Vocabulary
  • Complete a full color illustration of a political cartoon from this time period using the paper provided in class.
  • Leave a 1 inch border at the bottom for a one sentence caption.
    • Caption should define the person, places, events, etc.
    • Include word bubbles as necessary to communicate your message.
  • Glue your political cartoon into your notebook.

What REALLY happened during the

Boston Massacre? CSI Investigation in 1770!

Use the following primary and secondary

sources in your teams to answer questions and draw conclusions about this major event in American History



British soldiers of the 29th regiment; redcoats; Captain Preston

Colonists are unarmed; British soldiers are firing their guns under order

He asks them if they are intending to murder people.

Yes! “Yes, by God, root and branch.”

He was struck with a club and received a painful wound to the bone. He is warned

about a future violent attack in the streets of Boston.

Gathering of “lads” in the streets against British order; taunting and name calling while

throwing of snowballs against the officers.

Bridgham was involved in commerce (buying and selling of goods) in Boston. He was

wealthy as a result of this business. He was loyal to the crown.

He was born into a Loyalist family and benefitted from active trade between New England the Britain. The war would ruin his business.

The identity is unknown


The soldiers’ guns were hit by the colonists, were dared to fire against unarmed

men. They were called cowards.

Grief, sadness towards the colonists. Shows extreme violence towards colonists. Evidence: Smoke shows that

many shots were being fired repeatedly. .

Distress, sorrow for the colonists; anger towards the British; Evidence: “In less than a minute 10 or 12 of them came

out with drawn cutlasses, clubs and bayonets, and set upon the unarmed boys and young folks...” Describes each death in detail.

Feel as if the British were encouraged, given no other option.. Evidence: “I saw several snow-balls and pieces of

ice thrown, and heard a rattling against the barrels of the guns, whether it was sticks or not..”

See slide21..

Answers will vary as long as evidence is provided. Use the sentence stem, we believe _______________

because of _____________.

I believe ________________ because (source) ___________________ says (evidence)

_________________ my decision.

Revere excludes the presence of snow and the colonists surrounding the soldiers. The colonists are not attacking/

provoking the soldiers. Attucks is also not featured as a victim.



  • What claims does the author/artist make? What evidence does the author/artist use to support those claims?
  • Engravings:
    • Claim: British were violent and vicious;
    • Evidence: The engravings show the British firing at the unarmed colonists while they have no means to protect themselves
  • Newspaper Article:
    • Claim: British had planned the attack;
    • Evidence: “..and asked them if they intended to murder people? They answered YES…”
  • Trial:
    • Claim: The soldiers were defending themselves against the colonists;
    • Evidence: Bridgham discusses that things were thrown at the soldiers, that the colonists surrounded the soldiers and struck their guns with sticks, as well as calling them names


  • How does the document make me feel? What words, phrases, or images does the author/artist use to convince me that he/she is right?
  • Engravings:
    • Claim: Grief, sadness; Shows extreme violence towards colonists. Evidence: Smoke shows that many shots were being fired repeatedly.
  • Newspaper Article:
    • Claim: Distress, sorrow;
    • Evidence: “In less than a minute 10 or 12 of them came out with drawn cutlasses, clubs and bayonets, and set upon the unarmed boys and young folks...” Describes each death in detail.
  • Trial:
    • Claim: Feel as if the British were encouraged, given no other option.
    • Evidence: “I saw several snow-balls and pieces of ice thrown, and heard a rattling against the barrels of the guns, whether it was sticks or not..”


  • How does the textbook’s account differ/remain the same? If different, what information does the author/artist leave out?
  • Engravings:
    • The artist doesn’t show the colonists surrounding the soldiers; apparent premeditated attack; lack of snow
  • Newspaper Article:
    • Differs in that the text discusses that the soldiers were surrounded, felt scared, and panicked; presence of snow
  • Trial:
    • Same in that they both showed/discussed that tensions had been building and that the soldiers were somewhat defending themselves.


  • What do other pieces of evidence say? What pieces of evidence are most believable?
    • There are at least two sides to the story. Some pieces take the side of the British while others take the side of the Colonists.
    • I believe the ___________ to be most reliable because….
  • Am I finding different versions of the story believable? Why or why not?
    • Yes I am finding that ___________ source is more/less believable because…
  • What new questions do you have that leads to further research? (DIG DEEPER…NOT OPTIONAL!)
    • When you ask questions you are indicating you have indeed analyzed the texts! You are “” like a scholar now 
  • What do I really believe happened in the Boston Massacre?
    • I believe _________________ because the ___________ (source) says and ____________ (evidence) supports my decision.

Does this image reflect historical accuracy? Why or why not? What information has influenced your decision?

"Crispus Attucks," by Herschel Levit, mural at the Recorder of Deeds building, built in 1943. 515 D St., NW, Washington, D.C.

lesson 3 the revolution begins p 286 291
Lesson 3: The Revolution Begins P. 286-291
  • EQ: Why did the American Revolution begin with the battles of Lexington and Concord?
  • Vocabulary
    • American Revolution
    • Battle of Bunker Hill
1775 battle map of lexington and concord
1775 Battle Map of Lexington and Concord

Minutemen take advantage of British in Concord; British retreat to Boston; Patriot victory

British surprise attacked at Lexington; British victory

Patriots attempt to force British out of Boston; British advance on Breed’s Hill pushing Patriots back to Bunker Hill; British victory

British retreat back to Boston suffering heavy losses.









complete wb p 69 as notes for lesson 3
Complete WB p. 69 as notes for Lesson 3

British soldiers secretly begin marching from Boston to Concord.

Paul Revere knows of the British soldiers’ plan and sets out to warn the militias in Lexington and Concord.

The shot known as “the shot heard round the world” is fired.

The British win the Battle of Lexington.

British soldiers suffer heavy losses from Patriots firing at them as they walk 20 miles from Concord to safety in Boston.

Colonel Prescott’s men work all night building a fort to defend Breed’s Hill.

The British suffer heavy losses but win the Battle of Bunker Hill.


No one is sure who

It does not say

April 19, 1775

Lieutenant John Barker (British Army Officer)

Diary Entry


The textbook says that “someone fired-no one is sure who.” It can not be certain how many shots were fired, although enough to kill eight and wound nine minutemen. Barker’s account implies that the minutemen fired first, where as the textbook does not take a position.

Yes, because Barker is an officer in the British army present the same day and recorded a diary entry the same day. What reason would he have to lie in his personal diary entry. No, because minutemen were killed this day, and the British have already been accused of opening firing on “innocent” minutemen. He wanted to make it look like he was innocent, especially in his personal diary.

April 25, 1775

34 minutemen (Nathaniel Mulliken, Philip Russell, and 32 others)

Sworn testimony before three Justices of the Peace


Yes or no 

The minutemen marched toward the Green and saw a large number of British troops marching toward them. Some of the minutemen got scared and ran. As their backs were turned, the British fired at them. No minutemen ever fired their weapon prior to the British firing.

Barker says that the minutemen fired their weapons as the British approached the Green. The British then fired, scaring the minutemen to run away.


To our knowledge means that the version told is personal/opinion /best of memory. The minutemen admit that are telling the event from their perspective to the best they remember. It is possible parts of this story are exaggerated/false/etc.

Barker because he was present at the event and recorded the entry on the same day. As an officer in the British army he is trusted. What reason does Barker have to lie in his diary. (Muliken’s version was recorded 6 days

Mulliken because he provided sworn testimony, along with 33 other men. They were witness to this event and have no reason to lie. (Barker wanted to sound innocent and provoked by the minutemen)

Selection must be supported with evidence from both the IMAGE, TEXTBOOK, and DOCUMENTS provided in class. Faliure to acknowledge all documents or reference to the evidence presented in the image results in point deductions.

chapter 8 main ideas copy the following answers into your notebook
Chapter 8: Main IdeasCopy the following answers into your notebook
  • How did taxation lead to trouble between Britain and the colonies?
    • Taxation to recover from the debt of the French and Indian War, was imposed upon the colonists without representation in Parliament. “No taxation without representation.”
  • What events in Boston led the colonists closer to war?
    • The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and the enforcement of the Intolerable Acts increased tensions between the colonists and the British.
  • What were the results of the first three battles of the American Revolution?
    • The British won the Battle of Lexington (1775), Patriots won the Battle of Concord (1775), and the British won the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775), although there were more British casualties therefore a “morale” win for the Patriots.
critical thinking drawing conclusions
Critical Thinking: Drawing Conclusions
  • What do you think was the biggest mistake that Britain made in the colonies before 1776?
    • Answers may include lack of representation in Parliament or recognition of colonial government leadership as viable.