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Processing of Information and Performance of Experts. Models of information processing were prevalent from the 1950’s - 1980’s Represented a shift in focus from product to process. Subjects’ experience and activities engaged in became important components in the analysis of tasks.

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slide2

Models of information processing were prevalent from the 1950’s - 1980’s

  • Represented a shift in focus from product to process. Subjects’ experience and activities engaged in became important components in the analysis of tasks.
  • Cognitive models were used to explain motor behavior.
slide3

Intrinsic Information Feedback

Input

Perception

Decision

Effector

Output

Extrinsic Information Feedback

STM

LTM

A serial model of information processing.

perception
Perception

Intrinsic Information Feedback

  • Clarity and Intensity
  • Detection
  • Recognition
  • Comparison
  • Selective Attention

Input

Perception

Decision

Effector

Output

Extrinsic Information Feedback

STM

LTM

info processing

short term memory
Short-term memory

Intrinsic Information Feedback

  • Utilization
  • Organization
  • Execution
  • Evaluation

Input

Perception

Decision

Effector

Output

Extrinsic Information Feedback

STM

LTM

info processing

what is working memory
What is working memory?
  • Working memory is a way of describing short-term memory. The working memory perspective views the short-term memory like a workbench where input is received, past experiences are evaluated, and responses are shaped.
  • Some patterns, ideas, and information are received from STM and stored in some form for long term use.
  • Information is reshaped and transferred for performance.
decision
Decision

Intrinsic Information Feedback

  • Simple, choice, and discrimination reactions
  • Fractionated Reaction Time
    • Premotor reaction time
    • Motor reaction time
  • Single channel processing
  • Attention
    • Selective attention
    • Psychological refractoriness (the “fake”)

Input

Perception

Decision

Effector

Output

Extrinsic Information Feedback

STM

LTM

effector
Effector

Intrinsic Information Feedback

  • Open loop and closed loop models

Input

Perception

Decision

Effector

Output

Extrinsic Information Feedback

STM

LTM

dynamic systems models
Dynamic systems models
  • the environment (environmental constraints)
  • the physical properties (mechanical constraints)
  • the morphology (anatomical constraints)
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S-R tradition

Development of Motor Behavior

Hierarchical Models

Dynamic Systems Models

knowledge of performance feedback
Knowledge of Performance Feedback

KP is feedback about the movement form. It is related to the process of movement, e.g., proprioception (kinesthesis) or verbal information from a coach, teacher, ergonomist, or trainer. KP can be provided from internal or external sources. Gentile (2000) and Allard and Burnett (1985) advocated for providing KP in closed skills without intertrial variability.

knowledge of results feedback
Knowledge of Results Feedback

KR is feedback about the goal (result) of movement, e.g., seeing a ball go through the basket, hearing an administrator’s excitement at the completion of a task. KR can be provided through internal or external sources. Gentile (2000) and Allard and Burnett (1985) suggested KR is appropriate for open and closed skills that occur in variable environments.

components of expertise
Components of Expertise
  • Performance characteristics
  • Hardware and software
    • Neurophysiological mechanisms
    • Information processing
  • Memory
differences in expert and novice information processing
Differences in Expert and Novice Information Processing
  • Limitations
    • space and time
    • 7+2 items
    • chunking of information
    • organization
    • repetition and development of central program generators
differences in expert and novice performance characteristics
Differences in Expert and Novice Performance Characteristics
  • Relationship between process/product
  • Measures and analyses using biomechanics
  • Degree of goal attainment
  • Manipulation of objects
  • Movement of the body
knowledge structures
Knowledge Structures
  • What is explicit knowledge?
  • What is implicit knowledge?
defining expertise
Defining Expertise
  • What is ability?
  • What is expertise?
you are an expert
You are an expert!
  • Select a skill at which you consider yourself an expert
  • Attempt to uncover the components you bring to this skill that make you an expert
  • Identify the components discussed by Ericsson and Ward that make you an expert