Verbs Write Source 714-726
Verbs • Verb: a word that expresses action or state of being • 714.1 Linking Verbs • Links the subject to a noun or an adjective in the predicate. (Ex. He was the best fielder around.) Common Linking Verbs is are was were be been am Additional Linking Verbs smell seem grow become appear sound taste feel get remain stay look turn • Note: • The “Additional Linking Verbs” function as linking verbs when they do not show actual action. An adjective usually follows these linking verbs. • Examples: • LINKING: This fruit smells rotten. • ACTION: Maya always smells fruit carefully before eating it.
Verbs • 714.2 Auxiliary (Helping) Verbs • Used to form some of the tenses, the mood, and the voice of the main verb. (Auxiliary verbs in red, main verbs in blue) • “The long procession wasled by white-robed priests, their faces streaked with red and yellow and white ash. By this time the flames hadstopped spurting…” • Leonard Feinberg, “Fire Walking in Ceylon” Common Auxiliary Verbs is am are was were be being been do did does has have had should would could will shall can may might must
Verb Tenses • A verb has different forms depending on its number, person, tense, voice, and mood. • 718.2 Person of a Verb • 718.3 Tense of a Verb • Tense indicates time. Each verb has three principal parts: the present, past, and past participle. (A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective) • Past and past participle of regular verbs are formed by adding ed to the present form. • 718.4 Simple Tenses • Present tense: expresses action that is happening at the present time, or action that happens continually, regularly. • In September, sophomores smirk and joke about the “little freshies”. • Past tense: expresses action that was completed at a particular time in the past. • They forgot that just ninety days separated them from freshman status. • Future tense: expresses action that will take place in the future. • They will recall this in three years when they will be freshmen again. Singular Plural First Person I sniff we sniff Second Person you sniff you sniff Third Person he/she/it sniffs they sniff
Perfect Tenses • 720.1 Perfect Tenses • Present perfect tense expresses action that began in the past but continues in the present or is completed I the present • Our boat has weathered worse storms than this one. • Past perfect tense expresses an action in the past that occurred before another past action. • They reported, wrongly, that the hurricane had missed the island. • Future perfect tense expresses action that will begin in the future and be completed by a specific time in the future. • By this time tomorrow, the hurricane will have smashedinto the coast. • Note: use helping verbs such as: has, have, had, and will have to form the tenses. • 720.2 Irregular Verbs Chart (in textbook)
Verbals: Gerunds, Infinitives, & Participles • Verbal: a word that is derived from a verb but does not function as a verb in a sentence. It acts as another part of speech (noun, adjective, or adverb). There are three types: gerunds, infinitives, and participles. They are often a part of verbal phrase.
Verbals: Gerunds, Infinitives, & Participles • 726.1 Gerunds • A verb from that ends in ing and is used as a noun. • Swimming is my favorite pastime. (subject) • I began swimming at the age of six months. (direct object) • The hardest part of swimming is the resulting sore muscles. (object of the preposition of) • Swimming in chlorinated pools makes my eyes red. (gerund phase used as a subject)
Verbals: Gerunds, Infinitives, & Participles • 726.2 Infinitives • A verb form that is usually introduced by to; the infinitive may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. • Most people find it easy to swim. (adverb modifying an adjective) • To swim the English Channel must be a thrill. (infinitive used as a noun) • The urge to swim in tropical waters is more common. (infinitive phrase as an adjective)
Verbals: Gerunds, Infinitives, & Participles • 726.3 Participles • A verb form ending in ing or ed that acts as an adjective. • The workers raking leaves are tired and hungry. (participial phrase modifying workers) • The bags full of raked leaves are evidence of their hard work. (participle modifying leaves) • Smiling faces greeted my father when he returned from a business trip. • Note: the past participle of an irregular verb can also act as an adjective. • The rake is obviously broken.