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The American Civil War – Beginnings

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The American Civil War – Beginnings. Presidential election of 1860. In 1860, Stephan Douglas and Abraham Lincoln ran against each other again, this time for president. Lincoln had become well known from their debates about slavery. This time, Lincoln won, becoming the 16th president.

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presidential election of 1860
Presidential election of 1860
  • In 1860, Stephan Douglas and Abraham Lincoln ran against each other again, this time for president.
  • Lincoln had become well known from their debates about slavery.
  • This time, Lincoln won, becoming the 16th president.
southern states secede
Southern States secede
  • Lincoln received no support in the South, because they believed Lincoln wanted to end slavery. Since there were so many more people in the North, he won the election anyway.
  • As soon as Lincoln won the election, the South started to secede. This means the South split from the Union. They no longer wanted to be part of the United States.
  • Supporters of secession based their arguments on the idea of states’ rights. They had voluntarily joined the union, so they could leave when they wanted.
confederate states of america
Confederate States of America
  • On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede. They were followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
  • The eleven states that had seceded became the Confederate States of America.
  • They named Jefferson Davis as president.
  • They wrote a new Constitution which made slavery legal.
civil war
Civil War
  • A civil war is a war between people of the same country.
  • There have been many civil wars, but one of the worst happened in America.
  • The American Civil War was fought to keep the South from leaving the Union.
  • Slavery was the major issue that separated the North from the South.
slide8
Fort Sumter was a Union fort in the South, and the Union had a hard time defending it. They surrendered 34 hours later.
  • There were 23 states in the Union (North) at the beginning of the war.
  • There were 11 states in the Confederacy (South) at the beginning of the war.
north s advantages
North’s Advantages

The North had some major advantages:

  • They had many more people
  • They had many more factories, which could be used to make weapons.
  • The Union also had many more miles of railroad tracks.
south s advantages
South’s Advantages:
  • The South’s main advantage was that they were fighting at home.
  • They were closer to their supplies.
  • They would fight harder because they were protecting their homes.
  • Southern soldiers were better equipped with the skills necessary to survive a war.
abraham lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
  • The president of the Union was Abraham Lincoln, who had been elected in 1860.
jefferson davis
Jefferson Davis
  • The president of the new Confederate States of America, or the Confederacy, was Jefferson Davis.
battle of bull run
Battle of Bull Run
  • One of the first battles of the war was the Battle of Bull Run.
  • The North realized after this battle that the war would not be easy and would not be over soon, as they originally thought.
new weapons
New Weapons

Many new weapons were used during the Civil War.

  • One of these weapons was an ironclad ship. An ironclad ship was a ship with iron plates on it to protect it from cannon fire.
other new weapons
Other new weapons:
  • Deadlier cannons and bullets
  • Rifles that were more accurate
battle of antietam
Battle of Antietam
  • The first time the Confederacy invaded Northern territory was the Battle of Antietam. They were led by Gen. Robert E. Lee
  • It began on Sept. 17, 1862 and lasted 12 hours.
  • It was the bloodiest battle day in United States history. 23,000 men lost their lives that day.
  • The Union army stopped the Confederate army. This “victory” by the Union gave President Lincoln the chance to announce the abolition of slavery in the South.
emancipation proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
  • On January 1, 1863, Pres. Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation. It declared that all slaves should be set free in the Confederacy.
  • It also allowed blacks to serve in the Union army and navy.
  • The South ignored the Emancipation Proclamation, but it did change the focus of the war to the issue of slavery.
women in the civil war
Women in the Civil War
  • Women on both sides worked during the war. Many became nurses. The most famous nurse from the Union was Clara Barton.
  • She also helped organize the American Red Cross.
battle of gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
  • The Battle of Gettysburg was one of the bloodiest battles of the war.
  • It took place from July1-3, 1863.
  • 97,000 Union soldiers fought 75,000 Confederate soldiers.
  • More than 50,000 men were killed or wounded in the battle.
slide23
The Union won the Battle of Gettysburg.
  • Many felt it was a turning point in the war.
  • Many Northerners started supporting the army after this by lending them money to help pay for the war.
  • This was called a war bond.
gettysburg address
Gettysburg Address
  • Several months after the Battle of Gettysburg, President Lincoln went to the battlefield to dedicate a cemetery in honor of all those who had died.
  • Lincoln spoke for two minutes, but his speech became very famous.
  • It is called “The Gettysburg Address”.
slide27

Other Important Dates:

  • In March of 1864, Pres. Lincoln appointed Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to lead the Union Army.
  • On Nov. 6 1864, President Lincoln was reelected as president of the Union.
  • After several more battles, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865. The war was officially over.
  • On April 14, 1865, while enjoying a night at the theater with his wife, Abraham Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth. He died at 7:22 a.m. the next day.
  • On Dec. 6, 1865, the 13th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This amendment abolished (ended) slavery.