Reading Strategies Compiled Livingstone College May, 2011-present
Before Reading:Digital Storytelling Kalista: A Cold War Story
Before Reading: Video Clip *Open heart surgery *Trajectory of Space Shuttle * We Didn’t Start the Fire
Before Reading:Genuine Discussion Aspects of a genuine discussion (Dillon) * Both teacher and students participating * Students and teachers can initiate new topics * Safe environment
During Reading:INSERT I agree = (check) That's new = + I wonder = ? I disagree = X That's important = * I don't understand = ??
During Reading:Post It Notes * INSERT * Quotes to remember * Import Information to remember
During Reading:SQ3R 1. Survey 2. Question (turn titles into questions) 3. Read (answering questions during reading) 4. Recite (fold back second column) 5. Review (practice)
During Reading:Question the Author What is the author trying to tell you? Why is the author telling you that? Does the author say it clearly? How could the author have said things more clearly? What would you say instead? Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus
During Reading:Reading Circles A content area view of Literature circles. Students assume roles of: Summarizer Graphic Organizer Connector Evaluator Reporter
After Reading:Questions Comprehension questions Discussion Starters
After Reading:Graphic Organizers Google Search (Images)
After Reading:Multi-Media Modes Blogs: www.symbaloo.com http://reading-writing-thinking.blogspot.com/ Glogs: www.glogster.com Wikis: Greetings from the World Vokis:
After Reading:Panel Discussions Carefully configure groups of students to debate various topics from the reading.
Before Reading: Connect Two 1. Select 10 to 12 words or phrases you think are important for students to know prior to a reading selection. List the words on chart paper, chalkboard or an overhead transparency for students to copy on cards or small pieces of paper.2. Read the list of words with students.3. Ask students to "connect two" or choose two words they think might belong together, and state the reason for making the connection, e.g. "I would connect ______ and ______ because ______." Allow time for students to pair the words. Circulate around the room asking for the connections they are making.4. Read the selection.5. Review the word list. Then ask students to make connections, based on what they have read. Some of the connections will stay the same, and some will change. Share any new connections, e.g. "Based on what I read, I would connect ______ and _____ because ______."
Parallel Note Taking Provide students with various graphic organizers for note taking that will help them to organize the information they are gathering from the text they are reading. Choose passages from the text they are currently reading in class or for homework; it is important they practice these strategies in authentic ways. Using the graphic organizers to take notes during and after reading, students will be learning different strategies for processing the information given in different types of texts.
Marking for Comprehension Teach students a brief, meaningful system they can use: double lines underneath main ideas single lines underneath supporting details circle key words/terms jot a brief summary in the side margin
Summarizing Based on Rules Rules for Summarizing Delete trivia. Delete redundancies. Superordinate — use a general term for a list of ideas. Find or create a main idea sentence. Summarize across paragraphs, if appropriate.
Paraphrase/Retell Questions that invite students to paraphrase information: How can you put these facts into your own words? Which words capture the main ideas from this selection? How can you use the list of key words to make your own fact statements? If you wrote the key ideas as a grocery list, how would you compact the text? Which items are essential to the list? Which items can be omitted? What was your purpose for reading? Which details matched your goals? Which details were irrelevant to your purposes for reading the article? What questions did you want answered in the text? What answers were revealed?
Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention PracticeWhat Works Clearinghouse Provide explicit vocabulary instruction. Teachers should provide students with explicit vocabulary instruction both as part of reading and language arts classes and as part of content-area classes such as science and social studies.
To Carry Out: 1. Dedicate a portion of the regular classroom lesson to explicit vocabulary instruction. 2. Use repeated exposure to new words in multiple oral and written contexts and allow sufficient practice sessions 3. Give sufficient opportunities to use new vocabulary in a variety of contexts through activities such as discussion, writing, and extended reading. 4. Provide students with strategies to make them independent vocabulary learners.
Recommendation 2. Provide direct and explicit comprehension strategy instruction Select carefully the text to use when first beginning to teach a given strategy. Show students how to apply the strategies they are learning to different texts, not just to one text. Ensure that the text is appropriate for the reading level of students Use direct and explicit instruction for teaching students how to use comprehension strategies. Provide the appropriate amount of guided practice depending on the difficulty level of the strategies that the students are learning. When teaching comprehension strategies, make sure students understand that the goal is to understand the content of the text.
Direct Instruction:Six-Steps for Teaching New Terms - Marzano First 3 steps – introduce and develop initial understandings. Last 3 steps – shape and sharpen understanding.
Step 1: Provide a description, explanation, or example of new term. I.e.: “Our term for today is: prediction. A prediction is a guess or estimate of something. You may benefit from predictions. For example, the weather report is a prediction of the kind of weather you should be ready for. The meteorologist makes an educated guess about what the weather will be like for the day, week, and season.”
Step 2: Students restate explanation of new term in own words. This may occur as a whole class, or in pairs.
Step 3: Students create a nonlinguistic representation of term. Provide time, materials, and incentives to have them create a picture, drawing, etc.
Step 4: Students participate in activities that help add to knowledge of vocabulary terms. projects field trips other readings labs videos
Fishbowl Students discuss an issue in pairs or small groups. Four or five form a small circle in the middle of the room. The others circle around them. The middle circle discusses the issue as a group, while the others watch, listen, and take notes. Then students from the outer circle contribute points (one at a time) to the discussion. If time, change the middle circle and continue discussing. To highlight vocabulary: designate one student to be “Vocabulary Verifier.” They can note which vocabulary words are used, when, and how. Debrief afterwards.
“Mile a Minute” Activity Divide students into teams of 3-4 Designate a “talker” for each round. The “talker” tries to get team to say each word by quickly describing them, without using the words or rhyming words.
(Wegmann’s Addition) Step 7: (after all 6 steps) Students are assessed on terms directly.
Two more strategies for Vocabulary Development: • Do-It, Talk-It, Read-It, Write-It Do-It Talk-It Write-It Read-It
Echo Reading – Instructor models oral reading, students repeat. Choral Reading – various voices read portions aloud Guided Reading Fluency Strategies
Guided Reading at the college level Instructors choose a portion of the textbook that is particularly difficult. Before reading: Instructors ask questions and activate students’ prior knowledge of the topic. During reading: Instructors and students read the selection together. Instructors embed questions at important points, eliciting students’ comprehension. After reading: Instructors ask questions about the text, referring to the text as the “expert.” Instructors also ask students to re-read certain portions of the text, to clarify answers. (practicing fluency)
Text Features Text features help students identify important details in the text and become more efficient in their reading. Index Photo Paragraph Table of Content Title Caption Illustration Diagram Bold Print Heading/Subheading Glossary Paragraph Date line
Text Structures The way that authors organize information - help students focus attention on key concepts and relationships, anticipate what’s to come, and monitor their comprehension as they read.
Interrogating Texts: 6 Reading Habits to Develop in Your First Year at Harvard Previewing: Look “around” the text before you start reading. Annotating: Make your reading thinking-intensive from start to finish. Outline, summarize, analyze: Take the information apart, look at its parts, and then try to put it back together again in language that is meaningful to you.
Interrogating Texts: 6 Reading Habits to Develop in Your First Year at Harvard Look for repetitions and patterns. Contextualize: Once you’ve finished reading actively and annotating, take stock for a moment and put it in perspective. Compare and Contrast: Set course readings against each other to determine their relationships (hidden or explicit).