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Peripherals. 3. Hardware Basics:. Chapter Outline. “We swim in a sea of information.” Gary Snyder. Input: From Person to Processor Output: From Pulses to People Storage Devices: Input meets Output Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts. The Omnipresent Keyboard.

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Hardware Basics:

Chapter outline
Chapter Outline

“We swim in a sea of information.”

Gary Snyder

  • Input: From Person to Processor

  • Output: From Pulses to People

  • Storage Devices: Input meets Output

  • Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts

 2001 Prentice Hall

The omnipresent keyboard
The Omnipresent Keyboard

Keyboards are used to input and manipulate information with keys such as Letters and Numbers…

 2001 Prentice Hall

The omnipresent keyboard1
The Omnipresent Keyboard

…and Cursor Keys that allow you to move around the screen

…Function Keys that send special commands…

 2001 Prentice Hall

Reading tools
Reading Tools

  • Optical-mark readers

  • Bar-code readers

  • Magnetic-ink character readers

  • Wand readers

  • Pen scanners

 2001 Prentice Hall

Digitizing the real world
Digitizing the Real World

Audio digitizing and

Speech recognition software

Sensing devices

Video digitizing


 2001 Prentice Hall


Scanners capture and digitize images from external paper sources

 2001 Prentice Hall

Video digitizers
Video Digitizers

Video digitizers contain circuitry to digitize frames from camcorders and other video sources.

 2001 Prentice Hall

Digital cameras
Digital Cameras

Digital cameras turn real-world scenes into digital images that can be stored and manipulated by the computer

The images, stored in memory, can be transferred to a computer for either editing or storage

 2001 Prentice Hall

Audio digitizers
Audio Digitizers

  • Audio digitizers contain circuitry to digitize sounds from microphones and other audio devices.

  • Spoken words, music, and

sound effects can be captured.

 2001 Prentice Hall

Output from pulses to people


Video Monitor



Other Machines

Output: From Pulses to People

 2001 Prentice Hall

Screen output

Video Monitor

Also called Video Display Terminal (VDT)

Image exists in video memory—VRAM

Monitor size is measured diagonally across the screen

Screen Output

 2001 Prentice Hall


  • Images are made up ofdots called pixelsforpicture elements

  • The number of pixelsaffects the resolutionof the monitor

  • The higher the resolution,the better the image quality

 2001 Prentice Hall

Color depth pixel depth
Color Depth (Pixel Depth)

  • The amount of information per pixel is known as the color depth

    • Monochrome (1 bit of information per pixel)

    • Gray-scale (8 bits of information per pixel)

    • Color (8 or 16 bits of information per pixel)

    • True color (24 or 32 bits of information per pixel)

 2001 Prentice Hall

Examples of color depth

4-bit depth

1-bit depth

8-bit depth

16-bit depth

Examples of Color Depth

 2001 Prentice Hall

Classes of monitors
Classes of Monitors

CRT (cathode ray tube)

LCD (liquid crystal display)

 2001 Prentice Hall

Crt cathode ray tube
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)

A CRT is a television-style monitorfeaturing:

  • Clear image

  • Quick response time

  • Low cost

 2001 Prentice Hall

Lcd liquid crystal display
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

  • LCDs are flat-panel monitors

  • Features include:

    • Lighter weight

    • More compact

  • More expensive

  • Dominate the portable computer market

 2001 Prentice Hall

Paper output
Paper Output

  • Paper output is sometimes called hard copy

  • Hard copy can come from one of two kinds of printers:

    • Impact printers

    • Nonimpact printers

 2001 Prentice Hall

Impact printers
Impact Printers

  • Line printers

    • Used by mainframes formassive jobs

    • Limited characters available

  • Dot-matrix printers

    • Image formed from dots printed on paper

    • Good for text and graphics

    • Inexpensive

 2001 Prentice Hall

Nonimpact printers
Nonimpact Printers

  • Laser printers

    • Image transferred to paper with laser beam

    • Faster and more expensivethan dot-matrix

    • High-resolution hard copy

 2001 Prentice Hall

Other nonimpact printers
Other Nonimpact Printers

  • Ink-jet

    • Dots of ink are sprayed onto the paper to form the image

    • High-resolution hard copy

    • Some models print can print colorphotographs

 2001 Prentice Hall

Rules of thumb ergonomics and health
Rules of Thumb:Ergonomics and Health

  • Choose equipment that’s ergonomically designed

  • Create a healthy workspace

  • Build flexibility into your work environment

  • Rest your eyes

  • Stretch tight muscles

 2001 Prentice Hall

Output you can hear
Output You Can Hear

  • Synthesizers can beused to generate music and sounds

  • Many computershave synthesizers

  • Sound cards havebuilt-in synthesizers

 2001 Prentice Hall

Controlling other machines
Controlling Other Machines

  • Output devices turn bit patterns into non-digital movements

  • Robot arms

  • Telephone switchboards

  • Transportation devices

  • Automated factory equipment

  • Spacecraft

 2001 Prentice Hall

Storage devices input meets output
Storage Devices:Input Meets Output

  • Peripherals with both input and output functions provide semi-permanent storage for data

  • Examples include:

    • Magnetic tape and disks

    • Zip, Jaz and SuperDisks

    • Magneto-optical disks

 2001 Prentice Hall

Optical disks
Optical Disks

  • Optical disks use laser beams rather than magnets to read and write information

  • CD-ROM drives are optical drives that read CD-ROMs

  • CD-RW drives can write, erase, and rewrite CDs

  • DVD’s can hold between 3.8 and 17 gigabytes of data, they are replacing CD-ROMs

 2001 Prentice Hall


  • Flash memory

    • Compact alternative

    • No moving parts

    • May eventually replace disk and tape storage

 2001 Prentice Hall

Ports and slots again
Ports and Slots…again

  • The system board (motherboard) includes several ports:

    • Serial Portfor attaching devices that send/receive messages one bit at a time (modems)

    • Parallel Portfor attaching devices that send/receive bits in groups (printers)

    • Keyboard/Mouse Port

 2001 Prentice Hall

Ports and slots again1
Ports and Slots…again

  • Other ports that are generally included on expansion boards instead of the system board:

    • Video Port used to plug in a color monitor into the video board

    • Microphone, speaker, headphone, MIDI ports used to attach sound equipment

    • SCSI port allows several peripherals to be strung together and attached to a single port

 2001 Prentice Hall

Internal and external drives
Internal and External Drives

  • Hard drive

  • CD or DVD

  • Floppy disk

  • Zip Drive

  • SCSI port

 2001 Prentice Hall

Expansion made easy
Expansion Made Easy

  • USB and Firewire ports allow multiple devices to be connected to the same port and to be hot swapped:

    • USB (Universal Serial Bus) transmits a hundred times faster than a PC serial port

    • Firewire (IEEE 1394) can move data between devices at 400 or more megabits per second

 2001 Prentice Hall

Putting it all together networks
Putting It All Together:Networks

  • Networks blur the boundaries between computers

    • Networks can include hundreds of different computers

    • Can span the globe by using satellites and fiber optic cables

 2001 Prentice Hall