Hardware Basics: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. Peripherals 3 Hardware Basics:

  2. Chapter Outline “We swim in a sea of information.” Gary Snyder • Input: From Person to Processor • Output: From Pulses to People • Storage Devices: Input meets Output • Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts  2001 Prentice Hall

  3. The Omnipresent Keyboard Keyboards are used to input and manipulate information with keys such as Letters and Numbers…  2001 Prentice Hall

  4. The Omnipresent Keyboard …and Cursor Keys that allow you to move around the screen …Function Keys that send special commands…  2001 Prentice Hall

  5. Reading Tools • Optical-mark readers • Bar-code readers • Magnetic-ink character readers • Wand readers • Pen scanners  2001 Prentice Hall

  6. Digitizing the Real World Audio digitizing and Speech recognition software Sensing devices Video digitizing Scanners  2001 Prentice Hall

  7. Scanners Scanners capture and digitize images from external paper sources  2001 Prentice Hall

  8. Video Digitizers Video digitizers contain circuitry to digitize frames from camcorders and other video sources.  2001 Prentice Hall

  9. Digital Cameras Digital cameras turn real-world scenes into digital images that can be stored and manipulated by the computer The images, stored in memory, can be transferred to a computer for either editing or storage  2001 Prentice Hall

  10. Audio Digitizers • Audio digitizers contain circuitry to digitize sounds from microphones and other audio devices. • Spoken words, music, and sound effects can be captured.  2001 Prentice Hall

  11. Paper Video Monitor Sound Controlling Other Machines Output: From Pulses to People  2001 Prentice Hall

  12. Video Monitor Also called Video Display Terminal (VDT) Image exists in video memory—VRAM Monitor size is measured diagonally across the screen Screen Output  2001 Prentice Hall

  13. Pixels • Images are made up ofdots called pixelsforpicture elements • The number of pixelsaffects the resolutionof the monitor • The higher the resolution,the better the image quality  2001 Prentice Hall

  14. Color Depth (Pixel Depth) • The amount of information per pixel is known as the color depth • Monochrome (1 bit of information per pixel) • Gray-scale (8 bits of information per pixel) • Color (8 or 16 bits of information per pixel) • True color (24 or 32 bits of information per pixel)  2001 Prentice Hall

  15. 4-bit depth 1-bit depth 8-bit depth 16-bit depth Examples of Color Depth  2001 Prentice Hall

  16. Classes of Monitors CRT (cathode ray tube) LCD (liquid crystal display)  2001 Prentice Hall

  17. CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) A CRT is a television-style monitorfeaturing: • Clear image • Quick response time • Low cost  2001 Prentice Hall

  18. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) • LCDs are flat-panel monitors • Features include: • Lighter weight • More compact • More expensive • Dominate the portable computer market  2001 Prentice Hall

  19. Paper Output • Paper output is sometimes called hard copy • Hard copy can come from one of two kinds of printers: • Impact printers • Nonimpact printers  2001 Prentice Hall

  20. Impact Printers • Line printers • Used by mainframes formassive jobs • Limited characters available • Dot-matrix printers • Image formed from dots printed on paper • Good for text and graphics • Inexpensive  2001 Prentice Hall

  21. Nonimpact Printers • Laser printers • Image transferred to paper with laser beam • Faster and more expensivethan dot-matrix • High-resolution hard copy  2001 Prentice Hall

  22. Other Nonimpact Printers • Ink-jet • Dots of ink are sprayed onto the paper to form the image • High-resolution hard copy • Some models print can print colorphotographs  2001 Prentice Hall

  23. Rules of Thumb:Ergonomics and Health • Choose equipment that’s ergonomically designed • Create a healthy workspace • Build flexibility into your work environment • Rest your eyes • Stretch tight muscles  2001 Prentice Hall

  24. Output You Can Hear • Synthesizers can beused to generate music and sounds • Many computershave synthesizers • Sound cards havebuilt-in synthesizers  2001 Prentice Hall

  25. Controlling Other Machines • Output devices turn bit patterns into non-digital movements • Robot arms • Telephone switchboards • Transportation devices • Automated factory equipment • Spacecraft  2001 Prentice Hall

  26. Storage Devices:Input Meets Output • Peripherals with both input and output functions provide semi-permanent storage for data • Examples include: • Magnetic tape and disks • Zip, Jaz and SuperDisks • Magneto-optical disks  2001 Prentice Hall

  27. Optical Disks • Optical disks use laser beams rather than magnets to read and write information • CD-ROM drives are optical drives that read CD-ROMs • CD-RW drives can write, erase, and rewrite CDs • DVD’s can hold between 3.8 and 17 gigabytes of data, they are replacing CD-ROMs  2001 Prentice Hall

  28. Alternatives • Flash memory • Compact alternative • No moving parts • May eventually replace disk and tape storage  2001 Prentice Hall

  29. Ports and Slots…again • The system board (motherboard) includes several ports: • Serial Portfor attaching devices that send/receive messages one bit at a time (modems) • Parallel Portfor attaching devices that send/receive bits in groups (printers) • Keyboard/Mouse Port  2001 Prentice Hall

  30. Ports and Slots…again • Other ports that are generally included on expansion boards instead of the system board: • Video Port used to plug in a color monitor into the video board • Microphone, speaker, headphone, MIDI ports used to attach sound equipment • SCSI port allows several peripherals to be strung together and attached to a single port  2001 Prentice Hall

  31. Internal and External Drives • Hard drive • CD or DVD • Floppy disk • Zip Drive • SCSI port  2001 Prentice Hall

  32. Expansion Made Easy • USB and Firewire ports allow multiple devices to be connected to the same port and to be hot swapped: • USB (Universal Serial Bus) transmits a hundred times faster than a PC serial port • Firewire (IEEE 1394) can move data between devices at 400 or more megabits per second  2001 Prentice Hall

  33. Putting It All Together:Networks • Networks blur the boundaries between computers • Networks can include hundreds of different computers • Can span the globe by using satellites and fiber optic cables  2001 Prentice Hall