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Organizing Life. What is It? Why Classify?. I. Classification. What is it? 1. Grouping of organisms based on similarities. 2. Examples of classification: a. books in the library b. parts in an auto shop c. names in the phone book B. Why classify?

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organizing life

Organizing Life

What is It?

Why Classify?

i classification
I. Classification
  • What is it?

1. Grouping of organisms based on similarities.

2. Examples of classification:

a. books in the library

b. parts in an auto shop

c. names in the phone book

B. Why classify?

1. It is easier to manage and use the information.

2. It shows relationships among living things.

taxonomy
Taxonomy

def: The science of classifying living things.

taxonomist
Taxonomist

def: a scientist who studies classification

early taxonomists
Early taxonomists…

Aristotle

(334- - 322 B.C.)

*Greek philosopher

*devised the 1st formal

classification system

for living things.

*said the earth was the

center of the solar system

aristotle
Aristotle

Said there were two types of living things:

  • Plants

a. herbs (soft stems)

b. shrubs (several, woody stems)

c. trees (single, woody stems)

  • Animals

a. land dwellers

b. water dwellers

c. air dwellers

problems with aristotle s system
Problems with Aristotle’s System
  • Frog- Half of life is in water (tadpole), half is on land
  • Didn’t know about bacteria or one celled organisms (no microscopes)
early taxonomists8
Early taxonomists…

CAROLUS LINNAEUS

Carolus Linnaeus

(1707 - 1778)

*Swedish botanist

*devised the 2-part naming system that is used today for

living things called Binomial Nomenclature.

carolus linnaeus
Carolus Linnaeus

Used the following criteria as his basis for classification:

  • based on structural similarities (Morphology)
  • used Latin names to name organisms.
  • set up the system of binomial nomenclature. (scientific names)
rules for writing scientific names
*Rules for writing scientific names*

1. The GENUS is written first and the species is written second.

Ex: Homo (Genus) sapiens (species) = Homo sapiens

2. The first letter in the first word (GENUS) is capitalized, and the

second word is written lower case.

Ex: Homo sapiens

3. The scientific name must be underlined or written in italics.

Ex: Homo sapiensHomo sapiens

scientific names
Scientific Names…

An organism has only ONE scientific name.

White-tailed deer

wolf

common dog

Odocoileus virginianus

Canus lupus

box turtle

Canus familiaris

Terrapene carolina

scientists do not use common names of organisms
Scientists DO NOT use common names of organisms !!!

*Common names are the everyday name of an organism.

Reason #1:

The names are not very descriptive, which can be confusing in naming the organisms.

slide13
Reason #2:

There can be more than one common name for an organism

*Common names are the everyday name of an organism.

Sycamore tree

English sparrow

House sparrow

buttonwood

dichotomous keys
Dichotomous Keys

Aid in identifying unknown organisms

Pairs of statements with two choices of characteristics

Only one choice will apply to the unknown organism

This will lead to another pair of characteristics.. And so on…

slide18
Archaea

Bacteria

Eukarya

Eubacteria

Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia

Archae-

bacteria

organisms are classified by the following criteria
Organisms are classified by the following criteria…
  • Structure is the basis. (Morphology)
  • Early stages of development (Embryology)
  • Chromosomes, gene sequence, amino acids (Biochemistry)
  • The way they act (Behavior)
levels of classification taxonomic categories taxa
Levels of Classification(Taxonomic Categories – Taxa)

Memory Aid:

  • Domain
  • Kingdoms “Most Inclusive”
  • Phyla *(Division)
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species “Least Inclusive”
  • Did
  • King
  • Phillip
  • Came
  • Over
  • From
  • Great
  • Spain ?
taxonomy for istrian sheepdog
Taxonomy for Istrian Sheepdog

*Be able to compare two organisms on a chart.

how many kingdoms are there in biology
How many “KINGDOMS” are there in Biology?

CURRENT VERSION

There are FIVE kingdoms

in Biology:

1. Monera

2. Protista

3. Fungi

4. Plantae

5. Animalia

OLD VERSION

There are SIX kingdoms

in Biology:

1. *Archaebacteria

2. *Eubacteria

3. Protista

4. Fungi

5. Plantae

6. Animalia

Classification Video

***VIRUSES ARE NOT CONSIDERED TO BE LIVING!!!

kingdom monera
Kingdom: Monera

Type of cells:

prokaryotic

Unicellular/Multicellular:

most unicellular

Mode of Nutrition:

Heterotrophic & Autotrophic

Examples:

Bacteria

*New Kingdoms:

*Archaebacteria

- cell walls lack muramic acid

(live in extreme regions)

*Eubacteria

- cell walls have muramic acid.

kingdom protista
Kingdom: Protista

Paramecium

Type of cells:

eukaryotic

Unicellular/Multicellular:

most unicellular

Mode of Nutrition:

Heterotrophic & Autotrophic

Examples:

amoeba, euglena, paramecium

Amoeba

Euglena

kingdom fungi
Kingdom: Fungi

Mushroom

Type of cells:

eukaryotic

Unicellular/Multicellular:

Mostly multicellular

Mode of Nutrition:

Heterotrophic

Examples:

Mushroom, yeast, molds

Yeast

Molds

kingdom plantae
Kingdom: Plantae

Moss

Type of cells:

eukaryotic

Unicellular/Multicellular:

Multicellular

Mode of Nutrition:

Autotrophic

Examples:

Mosses, ferns, pine tree, tomatoes

fern

tomatoes

kingdom animalia
Kingdom: Animalia

Type of cells:

eukaryotic

Unicellular/Multicellular:

multicellular

Mode of Nutrition:

Heterotrophic

Examples:

sponges, snails, insects,

worms, jellyfish, birds

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