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The Tree of Life. Modern Evolutionary Classification. Problems With Traditional Classification. Appearances Are Deceiving Fish, Dolphins & Sharks What Characteristics Are Important & Which Are Most Important?. Limpets, Barnacles, Crabs. Traditional Classification. Cladogram.

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Presentation Transcript
the tree of life

The Tree of Life

Modern Evolutionary Classification

problems with traditional classification
Problems With Traditional Classification

Appearances Are Deceiving

Fish, Dolphins & Sharks

What Characteristics Are Important & Which Are Most Important?

  • Limpets, Barnacles, Crabs
evolutionary classification
Evolutionary Classification

Key Concept

Biologists Now Group Organisms Into Categories That Represent Lines Of Evolutionary Descent, Not Just Physical Similarities

evolutionary classification6
Evolutionary Classification

Is The Strategy of Grouping Organisms Together Based On Their Evolutionary History

Use of Evolutionary History is referred to as Phylogeny

It Is Not Obvious or Easy

cladistic analysis
Cladistic Analysis

Identifies and Considers Only Those Characteristics Of Organisms That Are Evolutionary Innovations

New Characteristics That Arise As Lineages Evolve Over Time

cladistic analysis8
Cladistic Analysis

Derived Characteristics

Traits That Can Be Used To Figure Out Evolutionary Relationships

Appear In Recent Parts of a Lineage


Not In its Older Members

Used To Construct A Cladogram


A Diagram That Shows The Evolutionary Relationships Among a Group of Organisms

Shows How One Lineage Branched From Another In The Course of Evolution

similarities in dna rna
Similarities In DNA & RNA
  • Beyond Physical Characteristics Are Similarities In DNA & RNA
  • Allows Comparison of Diverse Organisms
  • Allows The Tracing of Genes Over Millions of Years
similarities in dna rna11
Similarities In DNA & RNA

Key Concept

The Genes of Many Organisms Show Important Similarities At The Molecular Level. These Similarities Can Be Used As Criteria To Help Determine Classification

similarities in dna rna12
Similarities In DNA & RNA


Functional Protein Unit of Muscle Fibers

Found In Yeast (?)

Protein In Yeast Interacts With Other Proteins To Allow Internal Yeast Structures To Move

similarities in dna rna13
Similarities In DNA & RNA

Has Cleared Up Classification Questions,

Which Two Are More Closely Related?

Storks, American Vultures, African Vultures


molecular clocks
Molecular Clocks

DNA Can Mark The Passage of Evolutionary Time

Mutations Occur At A Somewhat Measurable Rate

If They Change The Phenotype, They Are Subject To Natural Selection

If They Don’t Change The Phenotype, They Accumulate In The DNA

molecular clocks15
Molecular Clocks

The Degree of Difference Due To Accumulated Mutations, Indicates How Recently They Shared A Common Ancestor

Different Genes “tick” At Different Rates Allowing Comparison & Validation