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Tree of Life. Figure 4.24. Fungi. Eukaryotic Mostly multicellular Some unicellular (molds, yeasts) Heterotrophs > 500 marine species Important decomposers Parasites (seagrasses, mollusc shells) Source of antibiotics (like the Penicillium fungi) (remember bioprospecting?)

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tree of life
Tree of Life

Figure 4.24

fungi
Fungi
  • Eukaryotic
  • Mostly multicellular
  • Some unicellular (molds, yeasts)
  • Heterotrophs
  • > 500 marine species
  • Important decomposers
  • Parasites (seagrasses, mollusc shells)
  • Source of antibiotics (like the Penicillium fungi) (remember bioprospecting?)
  • Symbionts – lichens, filament-like growths on algae provide structural support, while algae provides food
tree of life3
Tree of Life

-All have leaves,

stems, roots,

-Specialized tissues

to transport water,

nutrients, food from

photosynthesis

Figure 4.24

slide4

Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)- produce fruit with seeds

  • Seagrasses (50 – 60 species)
  • Not true grasses (related to lilies)
  • Roots, stems and shoots grow from horizontal rhizome
  • Flowers typically small and inconspicuous

Eelgrass (Zostera) – Temperate Atl, Pac; Tropical Pac

Turtle grass (Thalassia) – Tropical

Temperate Pac

slide5

Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) –

  • Salt Marshes
  • Cord grass (Spartina)
  • Pickleweed (Salicornia)

Spartina

Salicornia

slide6

Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)

  • Mangroves

Avicennia: grey or black mangrove

Variety of trees and shrubs

Tropical/subtropical

Salt tolerant-osmosis issue

Thick leaves

Viviparous-form propagules

Rhizophora: red mangrove

slide7

Flowering Plants (Angiosperms)

  • Mangroves vs Salt Marshes
photosynthesis

What is photosynthesis?

What are autotrophs?

Solar energy

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2

Fig. 4.5

Photosynthesis

new organic compounds

  • Solar energy powers the reaction
  • Carbon dioxide and water used to make glucose
  • Oxygen gas is released as a by-product

inorganic materials

photosynthesis11
Photosynthesis

Fig. 4.8b

What absorbs light energy?

- Chloroplast contains the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll

-Absorbs mainly red and violet- blue regions of visible light

Chl a absorbance

Fig. 4.6

cellular respiration

Fig. 4.5

Cellular Respiration

6CO2 + 6H2O ← C6H12O6 + 6O2

Chemical energy

  • opposite of photosynthesis
  • Releases energy in glucose, organisms store in ATP molecules until use
  • - Both autotrophs and heterotrophs respire
primary production p
Primary Production (P°)
  • What is primary production?
    • Net gain in organic matter that results when autotrophs photosynthesize more than they respire, i.e., P >>> R
    • ****Requires nutrients for organisms to grow, reproduce****
    • This organic matter (new plant material) is available for heterotrophs
primary production
Primary Production
  • ‘primary’ production because photosynthesis is the basis of most marine biomass production
  • Primary productivity is the rate of primary production, the rate at which plant material is produced
photosynthesis as a function of light intensity p vs i

Pmax

photoinhibition

Pn

Photosynthesis (P)

Pg

+

0

-

Compensation point

respiration

Ic

Light intensity (I)

Photosynthesis as a function of Light Intensity (P vs. I)

Pg – Gross Primary Productivity

Pn – Net Primary Productivity

Pmax – maximal photosynthesis value

Ic – compensation light intensity

slide17

Pmax

photoinhibition

Pn

Photosynthesis (P)

Pg

+

0

-

Compensation point

Respiration R

Ic

Light intensity (I)

Gross photosynthesis: Total photosynthesis before subtracting respiration

Net photosynthesis: Gross photosynthesis minus respiration, i.e. Pg – R

Is available to support other trophic levels

Compensation point: Light intensity when photosynthesis equals respiration, i.e. P = R

Lower part of the photic zone

photic zone
Photic Zone
  • Part of the pelagic that light penetrates (0 to 100-200m)
      • Clarity of water:
        • Seasons
        • Location
  • Phytoplankton carry out photosynthesis
      • Primary Production (Pº) is at maximum
      • Responsible for up to 95% of all marine primary production
      • start of the marine food chain
2 easy ways to measure primary production
2 easy ways to measure primary production
  • Either measure Oxygen (endpoint of the photosynthesis reaction)
  • Or measure Chlorophyll a (approximates phytoplankton biomass
photosynthesis primary production experiment
Photosynthesis – Primary Production Experiment

Purpose:

To determine if more light produces more Net photosynthesis (Pn).

Hypothesis:

Net photosynthesis (Pn) in high light conditions will be greater than Net photosynthesis (Pn) in a low light environment.

methods
Methods
  • Six groups of 2 people (some groups will have 3)
  • Each group gets 2 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) bottles. 1 will be the LIGHT bottle and the other the DARK bottle.
  • Three groups will keep bottles under the high light and three will put bottles in low light.
  • Measure and record t=26 hrs oxygen concentration in mg/L. Do NOT remove foil until you take the measurement. Use the same DO meter. (t=0 was already done)
  • Each group measure light levels in two environments
results
Results
  • Adjust initial and final oxygen concentrations
  • Light levels
    • Record light levels in high light and low light conditions for comparison
  • Errors?
    • Record any animals.
    • Record bubbles in light bottle.
results26
Results
  • Adjust initial and final oxygen concentrations
  • Light levels
    • Record light levels in high light and low light conditions for comparison
  • Errors?
    • Record any animals.
    • Record bubbles in light bottle.
results photosynthesis experiment
Results-photosynthesis experiment

Calculations

Gross photosynthesis

Pg = (Final O2-Initial O2) in Light Bottle – (Final O2-Initial O2) in dark bottle

Incubation period Incubation period

Net photosynthesis

Pn= (Final O2-Initial O2) in light bottle = Pg – R

Incubation period

Respiration

R = (Initial O2-Final O2) in dark bottle

Incubation period

Units

Oxygen concentration: mg L-1

Incubation time: hr

Pg, Pn, R: mg oxygen L-1 hr-1

nutrient experiment
Nutrient experiment
  • Purpose: To evaluate if nutrient (nitrate) concentration has an effect on phytoplankton
  • Hypothesis: Increased nitrogen concentration yields increased chlorophyll a production, and therefore, phytoplankton biomass
  • What was done ahead of time:
    • Dr. Gorga took a phytoplankton culture, controlled for light and nutrients, and added NO3 in 3 different concentrations (0, 200, and 450 mM )
  • We will measure chlorophyll a (fluorescence as a proxy)
methods29
Methods
  • Take bottle with phytoplankton,
    • Filter using vacuum-filtration apparatus
  • Place filter in tube, add methanol, agitate and crush filter with metal spatula
  • Put in freezer (-20oC) for 5 minutes
  • Centrifuge vial at top speed (5 minutes)
  • Transfer supernatant to cuvette (~ 2 ml)
  • Put cuvette in fluorometer, read fluorescence
  • Convert to chlorophyll a (fluorometer does this)
lab report
Lab Report
  • Write up two experiments:
    • How light and nutrients affect phytoplankton production (of oxygen, of cells/biomass)
  • Bring two copies to class-due in class, October 9th, 10th
  • Part of grade will be review of colleague’s report (worth 5 points of 25 total report grade)
  • Reports: double spaced, 4-5 pages, include tables and figures as needed
  • Figures, plot light versus average Pn (remember legend), plot nutrient concentration versus chlorophyll a
  • Remember the big picture/broader impact for discussion/introduction:
    • how light and nutrients affect phytoplankton production in the ocean,
    • what about nutrient limitation, light limitation
    • changes in both over time, with nutrients in proximity to coastal zone (humans)
    • Cloudy versus sunny days