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  1. Overview of Discussion • Defintions of HIV and AIDS • What happens to the body. • How it is transferred. • Statistics and facts. • What President Bush and the US government is doing to help. • Why these programs aren’t working. • Possible solutions the HIV/AIDS problem.

  2. What exactly is it? HIV AIDS HIV is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus that causes AIDS. HIV, is a member of a group of viruses called retroviruses which infects human cells using the energy and nutrients provided by those cells to grow and reproduce. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is the “after product” of HIV. AIDS is a disease in which the body's immune system breaks down and is unable to fight off certain infections (opportunistic infections). These infections and other illnesses take advantage of weakened immune systems. American Foundation for AIDS Research 2001 - www.amfar.org

  3. What happens? When HIV enters the body, it lives and multiplies primarily in the body’s white blood cells. These white blood cells are the cells that make up the immune system that normally protects us from infections and diseases. The most identifiable characte-ristic of the HIV infection is the steady loss of a specific type of ‘immune cell’ called T-helper or CD4 cells. American Foundation for AIDS Research 2001 – www.amfar.org

  4. Who has AIDS? According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an individual is defined as having AIDS if he or she meets one or both of the following conditions: • They have experienced one of more AIDS-related infections or illnesses. • The number of CD4 cells has reached or fallen below 200 per cubic millimeter of blood (this measurement is known as the T-cell count) U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - http://www.cdc.gov/

  5. How it is Transferred As you know, AIDS is a sexually transmitted disease. However, there are other ways for people to contract the HIV virus. • Other ways include: • Sharing needles or injection equipment with an injection drug user who is infected with HIV • From HIV-infected women to their babies before or during birth, or through breast-feeding after birth. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - http://www.cdc.gov/

  6. AIDS in Africa - Statistics Sub-Saharan Africa has approximately 10% of the world's population but represents more than 60% of all people living with HIV (25.8 million). Shockingly, in 2005, an estimated 3.2 million (approximate population of Oklahoma = 3.52 million) people in the region became newly infected, while 2.4 million adults and children died of AIDS (approximate population of Nevada 2.33 million). The World Bank - www.web.worldbank.org

  7. Some Upsetting Facts • HIV/AIDS has now infected roughly 50 million Africans. • More than 22 million have died. • Every minute four young people, aged 15-24, become infected with HIV • In South Africa, 21.5% of the population has HIV • A survey published in March 2004 found that South Africans spend more time at funerals than they do having their hair cut, shopping or having Bar-B-Qs. Avert – www.avert.org The World Bank www.web.worldbank.org American Foundation for AIDS Research 2001 – www.amfar.org

  8. What is President Bush Doing? • The President’s plan has supported life saving treatments for 400,000 sub-Saharan Africans for people who have HIV/AIDS. • This plan is called the President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) http://www.useu.be/President%20Bush%20at%20Concert%20Noble.JPG Info from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/hivaids/

  9. PEPFAR • Goals of PEPFAR are: • Support treatment for 2 million HIV-infected people. • Prevent 7 million new HIV infections • Support care for 10 million people infected of affected by HIV/AIDS, such as orphans and vulnerable children. Info from:http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/48746.pdf

  10. Problems with PEPFAR • Traditional diagnostic test for adults are not effective for children until they are 18 months old. • Pediatric regimens can be difficult to administer and maintain because of their complexity and other challenges associated with dosing by weight. Hopefully with the cooperation of public and private organizations, funds can be directed to research for better testing and treatments. http://www.enduranceandlove.org/images/mdf57295.jpg Info from: http://www.state.gov/s/gac/rl/fs/2006/62974.htm

  11. Problems with US prevention priorities • Treatment cannot match the growing number of infections. • Programs have been forced to reduce spending on Mother-to-Child prevention, thereby putting many innocent children at risk. • Programs have cut back on health care precaution which put workers and patients in danger. • Policies have increased the abstinence till marriage campaign to all overseas accounts rather than global HIV/AIDS accounts. • Policies have avoided providing information on the correct and consistent use of condoms because of a fear of promoting or marketing condoms in violation of spending restrictions. http://www.aidsmedia.org/files/1050_image_05.jpg • Programs have thwarted efforts to respond to local conditions, epidemiology, and cultural/social norms. Info from: http://www.pepfarwatch.org/pubs/HGAPGAORPT.pdf

  12. What Can We Do To CombatHIV/ AIDs in Africa?

  13. Possible Solutions… • Provision of Condoms • Provision of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) • Money • Improvement of Health Infrastructures • Empowerment of Women through Education

  14. Provision of Condoms • In Zambia, condom use is correlated with a decrease in HIV infection. The infection rate has gone from 28.3% in 1996 to 24.1% in 1999. • Africa only receives enough funding for 4.6 condoms per man annually • Limits of Condoms: • Not everyone is willing to use them • Conflicts with some religions • Desired Pregnancies Condoms

  15. Provision of Voluntary Counseling and Testing • This allow individuals to get tested for HIV/AIDS and obtain the information needed to effectively treat it if contracted • Advantages: -People who test positive can avoid infecting others -People who test positive or negative can obtain knowledge to prevent new infections

  16. Money!!! • Money can be used for: • More trained health personal • More contraceptives (ie, condoms, BC) • More prevention programs • More Palliative Care for people who already have AIDS • More financial help for orphans with AIDS

  17. Limitations of Money • According to Avert.org, and international AIDS charity organization: “more than money is needed to provide HIV/AIDS related prevention, care and treatment. In order to implement prevention, care and treatment programmes, a country's health, education, communications and other infrastructures have to be well enough developed in order to deliver these interventions”

  18. Improvement of Health Infrastructures • The World Health Organization wants to ensure that before providing antiretroviral treatment to those infected, there is proper health infrastructures and trained health personal • Health personal can: -Provide accurate information about HIV - Help reduce stigmas and discrimination associated with HIV - Provide food nutrition management to those infected

  19. Empowerment of Women through Education • A study done in Sub-Saharan Africa shows that sex education targeted at young females has lowered HIV/AIDS rate. • Among pregnant women under the age of 20, HIV prevalence has gone down from 21% to 15.4%. HIV levels continue to rise among the older pregnant women • When we empower women with education, we give them choices about their lives

  20. CONCLUSIONS • HIV attacks the immune system by killing T-helper cells. • HIV/AIDS is transmitted sexually, through the sharing of needles or passed on from a mother to a child. • President Bush’s plan is a good start, but is not as effective as education could be. • Priorities of US policies have been keeping plans from being effective. • Solutions to the problem are: • Provision of Condoms • Provision of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) • Money • Improvement of Health Infrastructures • Empowerment of Women through Education