Motivation and Reward. What does it mean to be motivated? Questions: What motivates you? What demotivates you? How is one motivated? Why is one motivated to do x or y? . Performance problems…. Signs and symptoms:- Organization Group/Team Individual role of ‘motivation’?.
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What does it mean to be motivated?
What motivates you? What demotivates you?
How is one motivated?
Why is one motivated to do x or y?
Signs and symptoms:-
role of ‘motivation’?
Regulation through understanding and managing the employee mind-set (cooperative systems approach)
Topic of satisfaction and motivation entered the agenda
….for love…isn’t that the reason why we do anything….?
Do you love to work? Do you work for love? Do you work to enable you to love? Would you work if you didn’t have to?
‘Pay might be the reason why millions of people get out of bed in the morning and go to work but what they do when they get there is an entirely different manner’….(the lottery question…)
…..it would certainly be motivated to move away!
Content Theories = taxonomic ‘lists’ of need (e.g. Maslow’s Hierarchy), motives (e.g. sensation seeking, need for achievement, need for power)
- e.g. Maslow’s Hierarchy: theory of motivation in general versus work in particular => attractive ‘holistic’ idea
survival, security/safety, social/belonging, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualising
Hierarchical proposition => movement into a higher order domain presupposes to fulfilment of lower order needs
Popularity versus scientific integrity- intuitive plausibility
Difficult to test – needs can operate simultaneously, depends on relative salience
Arbitrary categorisation – one may seek to fulfil a higher order need to satisfy lower order needs - e.g. for employability
Does need fulfilment motivate? (complete satisfaction or continuous striving)
So what? How do ‘needs’ they work? How might we use the theory?
Herzberg (1968) –
intrinsic (from within)
extrinsic (from outside)
Hygiene needs = ‘disatisfiers’, must be fulfilled to prevent disatisfaction but won’t increase satisfaction
Motivators = ‘satisfiers’, but won’t prevent disatisfaction
No direct evidence, but again, plausible
- e.g. ‘tip of the iceberg’ effect in absence of satisfiers, dissatisfiers become more salient
Also maybe a threshold of hygiene needs after which more pay adds nothing to satisfaction (Law of Diminishing Returns)
But, distinction intrinsic and extrinsic dubious e.g. payment (hygiene/extrinsic) makes possible the fulfilment of intrinsic (satisfiers) needs, also depends what ‘pay’ means (could be intrinsic motivator for some)
Again, so what?
Process theories - e.g. equity theory (distributive justice, procedural justice) instrumentality-expectancy theory, social exchange theory, goal setting theory…
Social comparisons = reference point
Presuppose a superordinate need for equity/justice/balance of exchange
Presuppose rational calculation of inputs/outputs
Highly cognitive … where is the sentiment?
So what? What do they tell us about motivation?
Content = what? Arbitrary lists of needs
Process = how? Cognitive mechanisms
How useful is either without an answer to ‘why is one motivated to do x rather than y?’
Importance of theory -> source of explanation and ‘intervention leverage’
Piecemeal/fragmented, mini-models, laboratory based, decontextualised
A theory of motivation must be able to deal with:-
All theories incorporate satisfaction, but, one can be motivated even if dissatisfied
Scenario -> professional person in the caring professions, there is low morale and high turnover, but not necessarily poor performance..
Work => self-expressive (directly or indirectly)
What higher order needs does work fulfil?
Competence/efficacy, achievement, meaning, esteem /worth / validation…
Why are we motivated to do what we do?
Can one be motivated in a ‘have to’ situation? - i.e. is pure ‘want to’ or intrinsic motivation possible without constraint?
An identity theory of motivation…
Does the term ‘motivation’ signify something unitary (uni-dimensional) or multi-dimensional?
Is it more useful as an analytic framework than a concept?
Still doesn’t answer the question of how?
Theories of goal directed and self-regulated behaviour
Psychological Contract Theory = schema theory (Rousseau) and/or relationship psychology (Herriot)
Critical importance of understanding processes, not just inside the head, but between people and the artefacts in their environment
universal theories are acontextual
particularistic situations – apply only in a particular context
Adequacy of individual level of analysis
Groups as a critical link pin and source of psychological leverage
Understand group processes – formal and informal – e.g. how do people maintain motivation in boring jobs? Informal compensatory mechanisms where there is some creative licence afforded by mgt (informal job redesign)
Payment systems => rarely truly contingent on performance (PRP)
Complex relationship between payment and intrinsic motivation – e.g. can change the meaning of work
Individual PRP in a team context can undermine teamwork by creating interpersonal competition
-optimise process by taking into consideration the task and its requirements and the people involved
-select process that is win-win for task and people; involve people in deciding on process
Control versus Autonomy – Formal versus Informal Processes