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Reward. Reward Psychopharmacology. Rewards can be chemical or natural f ood, exercise, sex, drugs Transiently or permanently alter neurochemical pathways d opamine , serotonin, GABA, glutamate This subsequently alters psychological, physiological, and behavioral pathways.

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reward psychopharmacology
Reward Psychopharmacology
  • Rewards can be chemical or natural
    • food, exercise, sex, drugs
  • Transiently or permanently alter neurochemical pathways
    • dopamine, serotonin, GABA, glutamate
  • This subsequently alters psychological, physiological, and behavioral pathways
reward pathways are complicated
Reward Pathways….are complicated…………

1. Mesocorticolimbic:

Ventral tegmental area (hindbrain)

Nucleus accumbens (forebrain)

Prefrontal Cortex

2. Mesopontine:

Ventral tegmental area

PedunculopontineTegmentum (hindbrain)

3. Nigrostriatal:

Ventral tegmental area

Substantianigra (midbrain)

Striatum (forebrain)

reward pathways confer type of drug seeking
Reward pathways confer type of drug-seeking

These types of parameters are used to

measure the extent of drug-seeking and

likelihood of full-blown addiction

heroin and morphine opiates
Heroin and Morphine (Opiates)
  • Act on GABA and µ-opiod pathways, particularly, in the brain, on medium spiny neurons
cocaine and ecstasy psychostimulants
Cocaine and Ecstasy (Psychostimulants)
  • Act on dopamine and serotonin pathways, particularly on neurotransmitter reuptake transporters

For serotonin: cocaine and ecstasy block SERT

nicotine and caffeine psychostimulants
Nicotine and Caffeine (Psychostimulants)
  • Act on cholinergic pathways, particularly increasing the rate and frequency of neuronal firing
alcohol
Alcohol
  • Acts on GABA and glutamate pathways, particularly by acting pre- or post-synaptically
under expression of per2 enhances alcohol intake and craving
Under-expression of Per2 enhances alcohol intake and craving
  • We created mice that had normal Per2 transcription, but less PER2 translation
  • Measured sleep/wake rhythms, circulating alcohol levels, and overall daily alcohol intake
what about in humans
What about in humans?
  • Humans with certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms of Per2 are more likely to become alcohol dependent