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“In the name of God”. Scientific Group of CSE Presents :. Embedded Systems Microcontrollers & Embedded Processors An Overview. By: Ramtin Raji Kermani Junior student of Computer Hardware Eng. Spring 2005. Embedded Systems. What is an Embedded System? Where are Embedded Systems used?

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embedded systems microcontrollers embedded processors an overview
“In the name of God”

Scientific Group of CSE Presents :

Embedded SystemsMicrocontrollers & Embedded ProcessorsAn Overview

By: Ramtin Raji Kermani

Junior student of Computer Hardware Eng.

Spring 2005

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

embedded systems
Embedded Systems
  • What is an Embedded System?
  • Where are Embedded Systems used?
  • Typical Embedded Systems Hardware
  • Embedded OS and Software
  • Microcontrollers
  • The 8051 Microcontroller
  • A simple project using AT89C51
  • References

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

what is and embedded system
What is and Embedded System?

A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface -- watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars -- utilize embedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operating system, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program. (Definition from wikipedia.com)

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

what is and embedded system1
What is and Embedded System?

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

es other definitions
ES, Other definitions
  • A special purpose computer built into a larger device.
    • Special purpose:
      • - Embedded systems have a (more or less) well-defined purpose
      • - Contrast with: general purpose computers (PCs etc)
      • - Both hardware and software is tailored to application(s), which are well defined
      • - However, re-programmability is a requirement
    • Built into a larger device:
      • ESs are (usually) part of a larger device, augmenting its capabilities

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

es other definitions1
ES, Other definitions
  • Any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself a general-purpose computer.
  • Anything that uses a computer but does not look like one.
  • The microprocessor in an embedded system is like an electric motor in a washing machine.

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

es types characteristics
ES Types & Characteristics
  • Types of Processing unit:
    • Hardwired logic
    • Programmable units
  • ES Characteristics:
    • Efficiently
    • Cost effective
    • Power efficiently
    • Real-time
    • Predictability

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

es history and solutions
ES: History and Solutions
  • A very little history: ;)
    • The first Embedded System: Apollo Guidance Computer.
  • Embedded Systems Solutions:
    • Microcontrollers
    • Embedded Processors
    • Digital Signal processors

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

where are embedded systems used
Where are Embedded Systems used?

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

where are embedded systems used1
Where are Embedded Systems used?
  • Signal processing systems
    • Real-time video, DVD players, Medical equipment.
  • Distributed control
    • Network routers, switches, firewalls, mass transit systems, Elevators
  • “Small” systems
    • Mobile phones, pagers, home appliances, toys, smartcards, MP3 players, PDAs, digital cameras, sensors, pc keyboard & mouse
  • Modern cars: Up to 100 or more processors
    • Engine control unit
    • ABS systems (Anti Lock Brake systems)
    • Emissions control
    • Diagnostics and Security systems
    • Accessories (doors, windows etc)

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

typical embedded systems hardware
Typical Embedded Systems Hardware
  • Commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS)
    • e.g. wireless radios, sensors, I/O devices
    • Cheap
  • Application-Specific ICs (ASICs)
    • ICs tailored to meet application needs
    • Good performance for their intended task(s)
    • Original ESs were ASICs only
  • Domain-specific processors
    • DSPs
    • Microcontrollers
  • Microprocessors
    • General Purpose Processors

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

new trends in es hw
New trends in ES HW
  • Systems-on-chip
    • Usual (or desired) specs:
      • 32-bit RISC CPU
      • Built-in interfaces to RAM and ROM
      • Built-in DMA, interrupt and timing controllers
      • Built-in interfaces to disk or flash memory
      • Built-in Ethernet/802.11 interfaces
      • Built-in LCD/CRT interfaces
    • New SOCs appearing almost every week!
  • Examples
    • Intel StrongARM SA-1110
    • Motorola PowerPC MPC823e
    • NEC VR4181
    • Many, many more

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

embedded os and software
Embedded OS and Software
  • Principal role: ‘Not transformation of data but interaction with physical world’
  • Acquires properties of physical world
    • Takes time
    • Consumes power
    • Does not terminate (unless it fails)

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

embedded operating systems
Embedded Operating Systems:
  • Office-style OSes
    • PalmOS
    • WindowsCE
  • RTOSes
    • VxWorks
    • QNX
  • Linux
    • Linux is already ubiquitous
      • Hundreds of different devices are using it
      • http://www.linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4936596231.html
    • Numerous commercial + open source products
  • Mobile OS
    • Symbian
  • Others
    • TinyOS

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

what is a microcontroller
What is a Microcontroller?
  • A microcontroller is an entire computer manufactured on a single chip.
  • They have a high concentration of on-chip facilities such as serial ports, parallel input/output ports, timers, counters, interrupt control, analog-to-digital converters, random access memory, read only memory, etc.

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

the 8051 microcontroller
The 8051 Microcontroller:
  • The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970’s.
  • The 8051 family characteristics:
    • 4K Bytes ROM
    • 128 Bytes RAM
    • two timer/counters (16 bit)
    • A serial port
    • 4 general purpose parallel input/output port
    • Interrupt controller

The 8051 can address 64K of external data memory and 64K of External program memory.

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

microcontroller 8051 internal architecture
Microcontroller 8051 internal Architecture

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

8051 pin description
8051 pin description
  • 8051 other family members:
    • 8751 (has EPROM)
    • 8951 (has EEPROM)

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

a simple project using at89c51
A simple project using AT89C51
  • Here we’ve designed, built and programmed a digital BCD counter that counts from 0 to 9 on a 7Segment display.
  • We use register A as Accumulator, in each delayed cycle the accumulator increments by one and result is showed on the 7segment display.

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

a simple project using at89c511
A simple project using AT89C51

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

references
References
  • Web References:
    • www.google.com
    • http://www.embedded.com
    • http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_system
    • http://www.linuxdevices.com
    • Mani Srivastava’s EE202A class
      • http://nesl.ee.ucla.edu/courses/ee202a/2002f
    • Edward Lee, “Embedded Software”
      • http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/497408.html
  • Books:
    • The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Mazidi, M.A.
    • Microprocessors: Uffenbeck, john
    • 201 مدار عملی با میکروکنترولر 8051، ف. خاکپور، انتشارات صفار

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

at the end
At the End …
  • Thanks for your Attention … ;)

Ramtin Raji Kermani

Spring 2005

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University

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