chapter 6 the muscle anatomy l.
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Chapter 6 The Muscle Anatomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 6 The Muscle Anatomy. The Muscular System. Functions Movement Maintain posture Stabilize joints Generate heat Three basic muscle types Skeletal muscle* Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle. Muscles and Body Movements.

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slide2
The Muscular System

Functions

  • Movement
  • Maintain posture
  • Stabilize joints
  • Generate heat

Three basic muscle types

  • Skeletal muscle*
  • Cardiac muscle
  • Smooth muscle
slide3
Muscles and Body Movements

-Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone

-Muscles are attached to at least two points

  • Origin – attachment to an immoveable bone
  • Insertion – attachment to a movable bone
slide4
Types of Muscles
  • Prime mover – muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement
  • Antagonist – muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover
  • Synergist – muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation
  • Fixator – stabilizes the origin of a prime mover

Hamstring

Quads

Calf & Glutes

ordinary body movements skeletal
Ordinary Body Movements - Skeletal
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Rotation
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Circumduction
slide6
Special Movements - Skeletal
  • Dorsifelxion
  • Plantar flexion
  • Inversion
  • Eversion
  • Supination
  • Pronation
  • Opposition
slide7

Naming of Skeletal Muscles

1. Direction. Ex: rectus (straight)

2. Size. Ex: maximus (largest)

3. Location. Ex: many named for bones (temporalis)

4. Number of origins. Ex: triceps (three heads)

5. Origin & insertion. Ex: sterno (on the sternum)

6. Shape. Ex: deltoid (triangular)

7. Action. Ex: flexor & extensor (flexes or extends bone)

slide8
Characteristics of Muscles
  • Muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber)
  • Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments
  • All muscles share some terminology
    • Prefix myo refers to muscle
    • Prefix mys refers to muscle
    • Prefix sarco refers to flesh
slide9
Skeletal Muscle Characteristics
  • Most attached to bones by tendons
  • Multinucleate
  • Striated – visible banding
  • Voluntary – conscious control
  • Cells surrounded & bundled by connective tissue
slide10
Connective Tissue Wrappings
  • Endomysium – around single muscle fiber
  • Perimysium – around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers
  • Epimysium – covers the entire skeletal muscle
  • Fascia – on the outside of the epimysium
slide11
Skeletal Muscle Attachments
  • Epimysium blends into a connective tissue attachment

- Tendon – cord-like structure

- Aponeuroses – sheet-like structure

  • Sites of muscle attachment

- Bones

- Cartilages

- Connective tissue coverings

slide12
Smooth Muscle Characteristics
  • No striations
  • Spindle-shaped cells
  • Single nucleus
  • Involuntary – no conscious control
  • Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs
slide13
Cardiac Muscle Characteristics
  • Has striations
  • Single nucleus
  • Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc
  • Involuntary
  • Found only in the heart
slide14
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
  • Sarcolemma – specialized plasma membrane
  • Sarcoplasmicreticulum – specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • Nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma
slide15
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle

Myofibrils - Bundles of myofilaments

- aligned to give distrinct bands

  • I band = light band
  • A band = dark band

Sarcomere - Contractile unit of a muscle fiber

slide16
Organization of the Sarcomere
  • Thick filaments = myosin filaments
    • protein myosin
    • ATPase enzymes
  • Thin filaments = actin filaments

- protein actin

slide17
Microscopic Anatomy
  • Myosin filaments have heads (extensions or cross bridges)
  • Myosin and actin overlap somewhat
  • At rest, there is a bare zone that lacks actin filaments
  • Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) – for storage of calcium
slide18
Properties of Skeletal Muscle
  • Irritability – ability to receive and respond to a stimulus
  • Contractility – ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received
slide19
Nerve Stimulus to Muscles
  • Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by a nerve to contract
  • Motor unit

- One neuron

- Muscle cells stimulated by that neuron

slide20
Nerve Stimulus to Muscles
  • Neuromuscular junctions – association site of nerve and muscle