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AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: EXPOSITORY. Type of Writing. Author’s Point of View and tone is:. Primarily Neutral. News articles Textbooks Biographies Documentaries Technical Manuals Charts, Graphs, tables. Purpose: to INFORM, explain, give directions, illustrate, or present information.

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author s purpose expository
AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: EXPOSITORY

Type of Writing

Author’s Point of View and tone is:

Primarily Neutral

  • News articles
  • Textbooks
  • Biographies
  • Documentaries
  • Technical Manuals
  • Charts, Graphs, tables

Purpose: to INFORM, explain, give directions, illustrate, or present information

author s purpose persuasive
AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: PERSUASIVE

Type of Writing

Authors POV and tone:

Clearly reflects the

author’s attitude or

opinion

Opinion may be directly stated or implied

Author may try to convince readers by appealing to their feelings/values

  • Editorials
  • Advertisements
  • Campaign Speeches
  • Bumper Stickers
  • Billboards
  • Commercials
  • Some charts and graphs

Purpose: to PERSUADE by expressing an opinion to convince readers to think/feel/act a certain way

author s purpose entertain express thoughts
AUTHOR’S PURPOSE: ENTERTAIN/EXPRESS THOUGHTS

Type of writing

Author’s POV and tone:

Uses characters/narrators to express attitudes

Tone can be anything

from light and

humorous to serious

and sad

  • Short story
  • Poetry
  • Novels
  • Drama

Purpose: to illustrate a theme, event, or story that conveys a mood; usually written to ENTERTAIN

slide4

Return of the Wolves

Once the howl of the wolf was heard all over the wilderness of the United States. But by 1900, only a few thousand wolves roamed free in the U.S., mostly in Minnesota and Alaska. In 1973, the government put wolves on the endangered species list.

Animal activists are working to bring back the wolf. However, some farmers and ranchers worry that this meat eater will endanger their way of life.

In an experiment program, 31 wild wolves were brought from Canada and released in Yellowstone National Park in the last two years. Nine wolf pups were born in the park. Now, animal activists want to repeat this success story in New York, Maine, New Mexico, and Arizona.

slide5

From Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have A Dream” Speech

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation… I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.“I have a dream today… Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado!

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California!

But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee!

Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

slide6

“How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count The Ways”

How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.I love thee to the depth and breadth and heightMy soul can reach, when feeling out of sightFor the ends of Being and ideal Grace.I love thee to the level of everyday'sMost quiet need, by sun and candle-light.I love thee freely, as men strive for Right;I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.I love thee with a passion put to useIn my old griefs, and with my childhood's faith.I love thee with a love I seemed to loseWith my lost saints, --- I love thee with the breath,Smiles, tears, of all my life! --- and, if God choose,I shall but love thee better after death.

- Elizabeth Barrett Browning

point of view
POINT OF VIEW

How an author decides to tell a story

First Person:

Tells the story in the words of one of the characters

narrator==character

Third Person Omniscient:

“all knowing”

Author gives the reader knowledge of what all of the characters are thinking.

Narrator=/=character

Third Person Limited:

Narrator conveys the thoughts of ONE of the characters but the

narrator =/= that character

slide8

September 5, 1996

Dear Diary,

Today I got my first kiss. It was with Johnny Smith…he’s sooo dreamy!! We went behind the bleachers during P.E. and he held my hand and kissed me!! ON THE MOUTH!!! It was amazing!

Later, Missy told me that Jane was talking about me to Sarah. She said that I was mean and that I stole her boyfriend, but they were totally broken up by the time I came along…whatever.

slide9

She noticed them immediately. Old habits died hard, and her eyes tracked the movement on the road even before her mind registered approaching danger — five men striding with the swagger of warriors. The only outward sign of her alarm was the tightening of her grip on the knife as she stripped a dead twig from the branch of the olive tree. There was no point in running. The men had seen her, and if she was their target they would catch her sooner or later. Sooner, she thought ruefully, remembering that her legs were not so limber as they once had been.

Drawing a deep breath, she spoke as calmly as she could. "Lyceus, I want you to take those olives to your mother, now."

The young boy at her side looked down at the basket he carried and hefted its weight. He could tell it was more than half empty. "But Aunt Gabrielle, we've barely begun."

slide10

Xena drove the head of the shovel deep into the loose dirt, then heaved the load up and over, dropping it into the pit by her feet. She steeled herself for the soft thudding sounds the dirt and clumps of grass made when they fell on the bodies below. Another stab with the shovel and she could feel sweat break out on her brow. That was a bad sign. The morning air was cool and she hadn't been digging that long.

"I wish you'd let me help," came a voice from over her shoulder.

"Gabrielle, I told you to stay back." She couldn't spare enough breath to adequately convey her anger. Another bad sign. She wiped her brow with the back of her hand, then went back to her task. The next load of dirt seemed a lot heavier than the others.

slide11

TEAMS: YOU HAVE 5 MINUTES

TO CREATE YOUR BATTING

ORDER AND TO COME UP WITH

A TEAM NAME

START NOW!!!

the rules
THE RULES

TEAM CAPTAINS WILL FLIP A COIN TO SEE WHO GETS TO “BAT” (ANSWER) FIRST.

THE FIRST PLAYER IN THE LINE-UP WILL START.

BATTER READS AND ANSWERS THE QUESTION.

  • IF THEY GET IT CORRECT, THEIR TEAM GETS A “RUN”
  • IF THEY MISS, IT IS AN AUTOMATIC “OUT” AND THE FIELDING TEAM GETS A CHANCE TO “STEAL” THE POINT (SCORE)
  • IF NEITHER TEAM GETS IT RIGHT, IT IS NEITHER A RUN NOR AN OUT AND THE TEACHER MOVES ON TO THE NEXT QUESTION.
the rules continued
THE RULES: CONTINUED

ONLY THE BATTER CAN ANSWER THE QUESTION

IN THE INSTANCE THAT THE FIELDING TEAM IS ATTEMPTING TO MAKE A STEAL, THE ENTIRE TEAM CAN COLLABORATE TO GET THE RIGHT ANSWER.

3 RUN LIMIT—”BATTING TEAM” ANSWERS UNTIL THEY GET 3 OUTS OR 3 RUNS.

slide14

THE DEATH OF THE BALL TURRET GUNNER

From my mother’s sleep I fell into the State

And I hunched in its belly till my wet fur froze.

Six miles from earth, loosed from its dream of life,

I woke to black flak and the nightmare fighters.

When I died they washed me out of the turret with a hose.

- Randall Jarrell

Identify the:

Point of View!!

First Person

slide15

WOLF, meeting with a Lamb astray from the fold, resolved not to lay violent hands on him, but to find some plea to justify to the Lamb the Wolf's right to eat him. He thus addressed him: "Sirrah, last year you grossly insulted me." "Indeed," bleated the Lamb in a mournful tone of voice, "I was not then born." Then said the Wolf, "You feed in my pasture." "No, good sir," replied the Lamb, "I have not yet tasted grass." Again said the Wolf, "You drink of my well." "No," exclaimed the Lamb, "I never yet drank water, for as yet my mother's milk is both food and drink to me." Upon which the Wolf seized him and ate him up, saying, "Well! I won't remain supperless, even though you refute every one of my imputations." The tyrant will always find a pretext for his tyranny.

- Aesop’s Fables

IDENTIFY:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

TO INFORM (EDUCATE)

slide16

For a moment, Mary couldn't even react to George's words. She knew she should be doing something, but she couldn't seem to get herself past the numbness that had settled over her. How could this happen?

IDENTIFY THE:

POINT OF VIEW

THIRD PERSON LIMITED

slide17

IDENTIFY:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

  • GET 2 PIECES OF BREAD
  • SPREAD PEANUT BUTTER ON ONE SIDE OF THE FIRST PIECE
  • SPREAD JELLY ON ONE SIDE OF THE OTHER PIECE
  • PUT THE 2 PIECES OF BREAD TOGETHER, SPREADED SIDES TOGETHER
  • EAT YOUR PB & J!!!

TO INFORM

(DEMONSTRATE)

slide18

THE MORNING NEWS

Commission Eyes Possibility Of Nature Center At Lake Atalanta

Last updated Wednesday, September 10, 2008 6:56 PM CDT

ROGERS -- The Arkansas Game & Fish Commission could play a role in the renovation of Lake Atalanta.John Mack, an architect with JKJ Architects, met Wednesday with Commissioner Ron Duncan to discuss building a regional Game & Fish office and nature center at the lake.

TO INFORM

IDENTIFY THE:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

slide19

The old lady pulled her spectacles down and looked over them about the room; then she put them up and looked out under them. She seldom or never looked THROUGH them for so small a thing as a boy; they were her state pair, the pride of her heart, and were built for "style," not service - she could have seen through a pair of stove-lids just as well. She looked perplexed for a moment, and then said, not fiercely, but still loud enough for the furniture to hear:

"Well, I lay if I get hold of you I'll - "

She did not finish, for by this time she was bending down and punching under the bed with the broom, and so she needed breath to punctuate the punches with. She resurrected nothing but the cat.

"I never did see the beat of that boy!"

IDENTIFY:

POINT OF VIEW

THIRD PERSON LIMITED

slide20

IDENTIFY THE:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

LOTTERY COULD HELP ARKANSAS

I agree with the recent article regarding a state lottery. I also think the money should go into the general fund for education. A lot of school districts are strapped for cash.If no one has a decent education who is going to meet the requirements for scholarships? As it is I have heard that the first year of college is basically to learn what they should have learned in high school. I once saw a list of what an eighth grader had to know in 1900 to graduate. I would be surprised if a college student could answer most of them.And there should be enough money to cover both basic education and some scholarships. And let’s be honest, not everyone has the ability or desire for college so some scholarships should be to vo-tech/trade schools. At least plumbers’, electrical workers’ ... jobs cannot be outsourced.

- Ann Ziser

TO PURSUADE

slide21

TRUE! nervous, very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why WILL you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses, not destroyed, not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. How then am I mad? Hearken! and observe how healthily, how calmly, I can tell you the whole story.

IDENTIFY:

POINT OF VIEW

FIRST PERSON

slide22

I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called - nay we call ourselves and write our name - Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.

IDENTIFY:

POINT OF VIEW

FIRST PERSON

slide23

TRUE! nervous, very, very dreadfully nervous I had been and am; but why WILL you say that I am mad? The disease had sharpened my senses, not destroyed, not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute. I heard all things in the heaven and in the earth. I heard many things in hell. How then am I mad? Hearken! and observe how healthily, how calmly, I can tell you the whole story.

IDENTIFY:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

TO ENTERTAIN

slide24

Once a certain tall soldier developed virtues and went resolutely to wash a shirt. He came flying back from a brook waving his garment bannerlike. He was swelled with a tale he had heard from a reliable friend, who had heard it from a truthful cavalryman, who had heard it from his trustworthy brother, one of the order- lies at division headquarters. He adopted the important air of a herald in red and gold. "We're goin' t' move t' morrah--sure," he said pompously to a group in the company street. "We're goin' 'way up the river, cut across, an' come around in behint 'em."

To his attentive audience he drew a loud and elaborate plan of a very brilliant campaign. When he had finished, the blue-clothed men scattered into small arguing groups between the rows of squat brown huts. A negro teamster who had been dancing upon a cracker box with the hilarious encouragement of twoscore soldiers was deserted. He sat mournfully down. Smoke drifted lazily from a multitude of quaint chim- neys.

"It's a lie! that's all it is--a thunderin' lie!" said another private loudly. His smooth face was flushed, and his hands were thrust sulkily into his trousers' pockets. He took the matter as an affront to him. "I don't believe the derned old army's ever going to move. We're set. I've got ready to move eight times in the last two weeks, and we ain't moved yet."

IDENTIFY:

POINT OF VIEW

THIRD PERSON OMNICIENT

slide25

Identify the:

Author’s Purpose

TO INFORM

slide26

Just as I had come to this conclusion I heard a heavy step approaching behind the great door, and saw through the chinks the gleam of a coming light. Then there was the sound of rattling chains and the clanking of massive bolts drawn back. A key was turned with the loud grating noise of long disuse, and the great door swung back.

Within, stood a tall old man, clean shaven save for a long white moustache, and clad in black from head to foot, without a single speck of colour about him anywhere. He held in his hand an antique silver lamp, in which the flame burned without a chimney or globe of any kind, throwing long quivering shadows as it flickered in the draught of the open door. The old man motioned me in with his right hand with a courtly gesture, saying in excellent English, but with a strange intonation.

- Bram Stoker’s Dracula

FIRST PERSON

IDENTIFY:

POINT OF VIEW

slide27

Hogs-Horns postponed, rescheduled for Sept. 27

Posted on Wednesday, September 10, 2008

The Arkansas-Texas football game originally scheduled for this Saturday in Austin, Texas, has been postponed due to Hurricane Ike's potential arrival in Texas this weekend, according the UA's Sports Information Department.

The game has been rescheduled for Saturday, Sept. 27, an open date on both teams' schedules. Kickoff time and TV arrangements will be finalized at a later date.

The Austin City Limits Music Festival, which is expected to draw around 200,000 people, is also being held in Austin the weekend of Sept. 27.

Read tomorrow's Northwest Arkansas Times for all the details on this story!

TO INFORM

IDENTIFY:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

slide28

WOLF, meeting with a Lamb astray from the fold, resolved not to lay violent hands on him, but to find some plea to justify to the Lamb the Wolf's right to eat him. He thus addressed him: "Sirrah, last year you grossly insulted me." "Indeed," bleated the Lamb in a mournful tone of voice, "I was not then born." Then said the Wolf, "You feed in my pasture." "No, good sir," replied the Lamb, "I have not yet tasted grass." Again said the Wolf, "You drink of my well." "No," exclaimed the Lamb, "I never yet drank water, for as yet my mother's milk is both food and drink to me." Upon which the Wolf seized him and ate him up, saying, "Well! I won't remain supperless, even though you refute every one of my imputations." The tyrant will always find a pretext for his tyranny.

- Aesop’s Fables

THIRD PERSON LIMITED

IDENTIFY:

POINT OF VIEW

slide29

`Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!' I shrieked upstarting -`Get thee back into the tempest and the Night's Plutonian shore!Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!Leave my loneliness unbroken! - quit the bust above my door!Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!'Quoth the raven, `Nevermore.'And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sittingOn the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floorShall be lifted - nevermore!

- Poe’s “The Raven”

IDENTIFY:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

TO ENTERTAIN

(SCARE/THRILL)

slide30

On the night of his arrival in London, Alexander went immediately to the hotel on the Embankment at which he always stopped, and in the lobby he was accosted by an old acquaintance, Maurice Mainhall, who fell upon him with effusive cordiality and indicated a willingness to dine with him. Bartley never dined alone if he could help it, and Mainhall was a good gossip who always knew what had been going on in town; especially, he knew everything that was not printed in the newspapers. The nephew of one of the standard Victorian novelists, Mainhall bobbed about among the various literary cliques of London and its outlying suburbs, careful to lose touch with none of them. He had written a number of books himself; among them a "History of Dancing," a "History of Costume," a "Key to Shakespeare's Sonnets," a study of "The Poetry of Ernest Dowson," etc. Although Mainhall's enthusiasm was often tiresome, and although he was often unable to distinguish between facts and vivid figments of his imagination, his imperturbable good nature overcame even the people whom he bored most, so that they ended by becoming, in a reluctant manner, his friends.

- Willa Cather’s Alexander’s Bridge

IDENTIFY: POINT OF VIEW

THIRD PERSON OMNICIENT

slide31

Just as I had come to this conclusion I heard a heavy step approaching behind the great door, and saw through the chinks the gleam of a coming light. Then there was the sound of rattling chains and the clanking of massive bolts drawn back. A key was turned with the loud grating noise of long disuse, and the great door swung back.

Within, stood a tall old man, clean shaven save for a long white moustache, and clad in black from head to foot, without a single speck of colour about him anywhere. He held in his hand an antique silver lamp, in which the flame burned without a chimney or globe of any kind, throwing long quivering shadows as it flickered in the draught of the open door. The old man motioned me in with his right hand with a courtly gesture, saying in excellent English, but with a strange intonation.

- Bram Stoker’s Dracula

TO ENTERTAIN

IDENTIFY:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

slide32

`Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!' I shrieked upstarting -`Get thee back into the tempest and the Night's Plutonian shore!Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!Leave my loneliness unbroken! - quit the bust above my door!Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!'Quoth the raven, `Nevermore.'And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sittingOn the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floorShall be lifted - nevermore!

- Poe’s “The Raven”

IDENTIFY:

POINT OF VIEW

THIRD PERSON LIMITED

slide33

IDENTIFY:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

TO PURSUADE

slide34

WHILE JIM WAS THINKING ABOUT DINNER, CAITLYN WAS THINKING ABOUT HER FIRST KISS. THE ONLY THING THAT BROUGHT THE TWO OF THEM TOGETHER WAS MRS. HANNAH’S ENGLISH CLASS. EACH WANTED SOMETHING DIFFERENT FROM THE CLASS, BUT FATE HAD BROUGHT THEM TOGETHER. THIS MEETING WOULD CHANGE BOTH THEIR LIVES FOREVER.

IDENTIFY: POINT OF VIEW

THIRD PERSON OMNICIENT

LAST ONE!!!

slide35

IT IS A GOOD IDEA TO LEGALIZE MARIJUANA.

IDENTIFY:

AUTHOR’S PURPOSE

TO PURSUADE