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Chapter 15: Information Search & Visualization. Team 3: Jacob Hicks, Victor Chen, Saba Alavi. Introduction. Information exploration overload/anxiety? Object-actions Interface (OAI) model helps by: separating different task concepts

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chapter 15 information search visualization

Chapter 15: Information Search & Visualization

Team 3: Jacob Hicks, Victor Chen, Saba Alavi

  • Information exploration overload/anxiety?
  • Object-actions Interface (OAI) model helps by:
    • separating different task concepts
    • separating high-level interface issues from low level interface issues
  • N00bs in an information-exploration system…
    • struggle to understand what they see whilst remembering their information needs
    • might be distracted by learning complex query languages/elaborate shape-coding rules
    • need direct-manipulation designs/simple visual-coding rules (low cognition)
    • can request additional features by adjusting control panels
  • Experienced users want more functionality and power: a wider range of search tools, lots of options
introduction cont d
Introduction (cont’d)
  • Task objectsrepresented by interface objectsin structured relational databases or text/media document libraries
  • Structured relational databasesmade up of relations and a schema (model) to describe relations
  • Relationshave items(tuples/records), which consist of multiple atomic attributes, each of which have attributevalues
  • Textual document librarycomprised of collections and descriptive attributes(e.g. location, media type, curator, donor, etc.)
introduction cont d1
Introduction (cont’d)
  • Multimedia document library same as textual document library, only instead of text, it’s media: images, sound, video, animations, etc.
  • Task actions(i.e. fact finding) decomposed into browsing/searching, represented by interface actions(i.e. scrolling, zooming, joining, linking)
  • Finding aids help users focus their info needs (i.e. table of contents, indices, abstracts, etc)
database query phrase search
Database Query/Phrase Search
  • SQL a widespread standard for searching in structured relational database systems
  • Requires substantial time investment to learn
  • Computer’s capacity for responding to natural language query often limited
  • Tradeoff exists between ease of use and usefulness
  • Empirical studies illustrate better performance and more satisfaction when users are able to view and control the search
database query phrase search1
Database Query/Phrase Search
  • Improved designs & consistency across differing systems allows for faster performance, fewer mistakes, and more successful searches
  • Recommends four phase framework:
    • Formulation – expressing the search
    • Initiation of the action – launching the search
    • Review of results
    • Refinement – formulating the next step
multimedia document searches
Multimedia Document Searches
  • Current approaches to locating media rely on parallel databases and document searches
  • Advocates for ambitions captioning and attribute recording
  • Classification according to useful search categories useful, though costly and imperfect
  • Graphical specification of query components:
    • Photo search
    • Map Search
    • Design/diagram search
    • Sound search
    • Video Search
    • Animation Search
information visualization
Information Visualization
  • Bandwidth of vision is high
  • Overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand.
  • Data type by task
1 d linear
1-D Linear
  • Text documents
  • Source Code
  • Bifocal Display
  • Value Bars
2 d map
2-D Map
  • Maps
  • Floorplans
  • Newspaper layouts
3d world
3D World
  • Real objects, models, ect.
  • Must keep track of position orientation
  • Occlusion
temporal data
Temporal data
  • Time lines
  • 1D linear
  • Start and finish time
  • Events may overlap
multidimesional data
Multidimesional data
  • n-dimensional space
  • Databases with n attributes
  • Can be 2D or 3D
  • Scattergrams
tree data
Tree data
  • Hierarchies
  • Can be shown as lines and nodes
  • Tabbed text files
  • Cones in 3D
network data
Network data
  • Networks
  • Cannot be written as a tree
  • Node-and-link
  • Square matrix
overview task
Overview Task
  • Movable field of view
  • 3 to 30 zoom amount
  • Fisheye
zoom task
Zoom task
  • View a specific area in detail
  • Smooth zooming preserves orientation
  • “A satisfying way to zoom in is to point to a location and to issue a zooming command”
filter task
Filter task
  • Remove unwanted items
  • Widgets to regulate process
  • Dynamic control of items
details on demand task
Details-on-demand task
  • Select item or group to get details
  • Click on an item to get popup window
relate task
Relate task
  • View relationships amoung items
  • Select an item to highlight related items
history task
History task
  • Keep history to support undo
  • Tasks from the past combinded
extract task
Extract Task
  • Extraction of subcollection of parameters
  • Allow to save the records that result from a search
  • Save settings
advanced filtering
Advanced Filtering
  • Dynamic queries
  • Numeric range sliders
  • Alphasliders for names
  • Bottons for small sets of categories
commercial information retrieval systems
Commercial Information–retrieval systems
  • Example – DIALOG or First Search
  • Permit complex Boolean expressions with parentheses but they are difficult to use
  • When we say or in English it means not both, but in Boolean OR is inclusive .
  • New York and Boston ( result 0 )
another form of filtering
Another form of filtering …
  • Apply a user-constructed set of keywords to dynamically generated information. Such as incoming email messages…..
  • A social form of filtering is collaborative filtering ….. Music, Restaurants ..
  • Improved user interface to traditional databese-query or multimedia-document search will spawn appealing new products.
  • The more Flexible the better…
  • 15.7 Search in complex structured documents. graphics, images, sound or video persents grand opportunities for the design of advanced user interfaces and powerful search engines .