Major Criticisms of Realism 1. Interstate system is not anarchic. 2. Actors (states) are not unitary in nature. 3. Behavior is not (fully) rational. 4. Military force is not all-important. 5. Sovereignty is overrated and declining. 6. Realism is "gendered."
Prisoners’ Dilemma Player B State B Don't Talk Don't Arm Talk Arm Player A State A Don't Arm Don't Talk 0, 0 0, 0 -10, 1 -10, 1 Arm Talk 1, -10 1, -10 -5, -5 -5, -5
Alternatives to Realism • Liberalism • Socialism/Marxism • Neo-Marxism • Globalism • Feminism • Post-Modernism
Fukuyama Article • Chimpanzee Politics • How much can animal behavior tell us about human behavior? • Which animals are most relevant and why? • What do primate studies say that is relevant to international relations? • Not-So-Noble Savage • Who was (more) right – Rousseau or Hobbes – about early mankind? • Are societies genetically predisposed to patriarchy? • Are men basically more violent and aggressive than women?
The Return of Biology • To what degree are humans “hard-wired” to act in certain ways? • What role does gender play in the pattern of this wiring? • Are there social benefits associated with these alleged differences? • Feminists and Power Politics • How do feminists view “power politics?” • Would a truly matriarchal world be “less prone to conflict and more conciliatory and cooperative?” • Can and should males be “feminized?” • How can this be done and at what cost to society?
The Democratic and Feminine Peace • Are women inherently more idealistic and pacifistic than men? • Are democracies more feminized than non-democracies? • How might this explain the “democratic peace” effect? • The Reality of Aggressive Fantasies • In anything but a totally feminized world, would feminine policies be a liability? • Can women be as effective as men in all military roles?
The Margaret Thatchers of the Future • How might demographic trends interact with feminization in different parts of the world? • Will the “female” North be able to cope with the “male” South? • Living Like Animals • Do you agree with the following statement? • “Liberal democracy and market economies work well because, unlike socialism, radical feminism, and other utopian schemes, they do not try to change human nature. Rather, they accept biologically grounded nature as given and seek to constrain it through institutions, laws, and norms. It does not always work, but it is better than living like animals.