CRITICISMS OF ETHNOGRAPHIC ANALOGY. Depresses Time and Denies Change The Problem of “Equifinality” Many paths to the same outcome Is the archaeological record “frozen Behavior”? Can we directly translate archaeological expressions into meaning social, political, or ritual patterns?
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Depresses Time and Denies Change
The Problem of “Equifinality”
Many paths to the same outcome
Is the archaeological record “frozen Behavior”?
Can we directly translate archaeological expressions into meaning social, political, or ritual patterns?
Binford’s definition of the archaeological record as static and contemporary. Translate statics into past dynamics
ARCHAEOLOGISTS DECIDE TO EVALUATE THIS QUESTION
New archaeologists committed to anthropological archaeology. But before you could address questions about culturally meaningful behavior, the nature of the archaeological record had to be investigated
Here’s the problem:
1. The archaeological record is composed of artifacts on the surface and buried. Those artifacts are “static”, meaning they don’t interact.
2. New archaeologists are interested in what people do and how they do it ( that’s active or dynamic). The question is how to move from statics to dynamics?
3. And before you do that you have to consider whether the archaeological record has changed over time.
Several components to this model:
B) Breaks culture down into a set of activities that transform material into something useful track the life histories of artifacts
C) differentiates kinds of artifact contexts SYSTEMIC CONTEXT
WHAT ARE RECORD FORMATION PROCESSES?WHEN DO THEY OPERATE?WHY DO ARCHAEOLOGISTS STUDY THEM?WHAT IS SCHIFFER’S ULTIMATE GOAL? WHAT DOES HE WANT TO “RECONSTRUCT?
Research with the Nunamiut at Anatuvak Pass
ethnoarchaeology, experimental archaeology
The goal of Culture Process: To create explanations of culture change…. THE CAUSES OF CULTURE CHANGE
Systems Theory (or General Systems Theory) was the initial model that was used to construct explanations.
So: we need to ask what is system? And how is that definition built into the structure of systems theory
What is the role of Systems Theory in this article?
What are the causes of change from hunting and gathering to agriculture?
Why do Mesoamerican macrobands become sedentary?