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Interest Grabber. Section 9-2. Rolling and Folding Some of the steps in cellular respiration take place in the membrane inside the cell structure called the mitochondrion, which has a folded inner membrane. What purpose do these folds serve?

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Interest Grabber


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    1. Interest Grabber Section 9-2 • Rolling and Folding • Some of the steps in cellular respiration take place in the membrane inside the cell structure called the mitochondrion, which has a folded inner membrane. What purpose do these folds serve? • To find out the answer to this question, perform this activity.

    2. Interest Grabber continued Section 9-2 • 1. Obtain two sheets of paper and a metric ruler. What is the surface area of the paper? • 2. Roll one sheet of paper into a tube lengthwise. What is the surface area of the rolled paper? • 3. Fold the second sheet of paper into a fan. Then, roll the firstsheet of paper around the folded paper so it is inside the rolled paper.What has happened to the surface area of the inside of the rolled paper? • What would be the value of increasing the surface area of the membrane inside a mitochondrion?

    3. Interest Grabber continued Section 9-2 • 1.Obtain two sheets of paper and a metric ruler. What is the surface area of the paper? • The area will vary depending on the size of paper used. A sheet of notebook paperhas an area of approximately 600 cm3.

    4. Interest Grabber continued Section 9-2 • Roll one sheet of paper into a tube lengthwise. What is the surface area of the rolled paper? • The surface area is the same as the original sheet of paper.

    5. Interest Grabber continued Section 9-2 • 3. Fold the second sheet of paper into a fan. Then, roll the firstsheet of paper around the folded paper so it is inside the rolled paper.What has happened to the surface area of the inside of the rolled paper? The surface area has increased (surface area of rolled paper + surface area of folded paper).

    6. Interest Grabber continued Section 9-2 • 4. What would be the value of increasing the surface area of the membrane inside a mitochondrion? Increasing the surface area increases the amount of space where chemical reactions can take place.

    7. Section Outline Section 9-2 • 9–2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport A. The Krebs Cycle B. Electron Transport C. The Totals D. Energy and Exercise 1. Quick Energy 2. Long-Term Energy E. Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

    8. Chemical Pathways Section 9-1 Glucose Krebs cycle Electrontransport Glycolysis Alcohol or lactic acid Fermentation (without oxygen) The “fork in the road” happens following glycolysis. It just depends if oxygen is absent or present in deciding the path it takes next.

    9. Figure 9–6 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion We will focus on the citric acid production first.

    10. Video 1 Video 1 • Chapter 09A.mpg video Aerobic Respiration

    11. Flowchart Section 9-2 Cellular Respiration Glucose(C6H1206) + Oxygen(02) Glycolysis KrebsCycle ElectronTransportChain Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) We will next focus on the Krebs Cycle. This is the path that is taken when oxygen is present.

    12. Figure 9–6 The Krebs Cycle Section 9-2 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion

    13. Video 3 Video 3 • Chapter 09C.mpg video Krebs Cycle, Part 1

    14. Krebs Cycle Animation-(select #1) Acetyl-CoA Formation: • The end product of glycolysis was pyruvic acid (also known as pyruvate). The pyruvic acid enters the mitochondrion. • The pyruvic acid & coenzyme A combine to form acetyl-CoA. • 1 carbon atom from pyruvic acid becomes part of carbon dioxide and is released into the air. • 1 CO2 and 1 NADH are produced.

    15. Krebs Cycle Animation-(select #2) Citric Acid Formation: • Pyruvic acid combines with oxaloacetic acid (oxaloacetate) to form citric acid, a 6-carbon molecule.

    16. Krebs Cycle Animation-(select #3) Electron Carriers are Reduced: • In each turn of the Krebs cycle, the cell quickly converts a molecule GTP (guanosine triphosphate) into ADP producing ATP. • A pair of high-energy electrons is accepted by electron carriers, changing NAD+ to NADH and FAD into FADH2.

    17. Video 4 Video 4 • Chapter 09D.mpg video Krebs Cycle, Part 2

    18. Krebs Cycle (continued) • 1 pyruvic acid generates 3 CO2 • 4 NADH • 1 FADH2 • 1 ATP

    19. Flowchart Section 9-2 Cellular Respiration Glucose(C6H1206) + Oxygen(02) Glycolysis KrebsCycle ElectronTransportChain Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Water (H2O) We will next focus on the Electron Transport Chain.

    20. Video 5 Video 5 • Chapter 09E.mpg Electron Transport Chain, Part 1

    21. Video 6 Video 6 • Chapter 09F.mpg video Electron Transport Chain, Part 2

    22. Electron Transport Chain Animation-(select start, continue, and #1) Electron Transport Chain: • High-energy electrons from NADH are passed along the electron transport chain. • Every time 2 high-energy electrons transport down the electron transport chain, their energy is used to transport hydrogen ions (H+) across the membrane.

    23. Electron Transport Chain Animation-(select start, continue, and #2) Electron Transport Chain: • High-energy electrons from FADH2 are passed along the electron transport chain. • Every time 2 high-energy electrons transport down the electron transport chain, their energy is used to transport hydrogen ions (H+) across the membrane.

    24. Electron Transport Chain Animation-(select start, continue, and #3) Electron Transport Chain: • The high concentration of hydrogen ions in the intermembrane space represents potential energy that is harnessed to make ATP. • As H+ escape through protein channels, ATP synthase spin. • Each time is rotates, ATP synthase grabs a low-energy ADP and attaches a phosphate forming ATP.

    25. Electron Transport Chain: • At the end of the electron transport chain, is an enzyme that combines the electrons with the hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water. • Oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain.

    26. Figure 9–7 Electron Transport Chain Section 9-2 Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement Channel Mitochondrion Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Matrix ATP Production

    27. Figure 9–2 Cellular Respiration: An Overview Section 9-1 Mitochondrion Electrons carried in NADH Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Pyruvic acid Glucose Electron Transport Chain Krebs Cycle Glycolysis Mitochondrion Cytoplasm

    28. Citric acid • KREBS CYCLE • (also called the ___________ CYCLE) • Happens in ___________ • NADPH donates _______________ • ATP donates _________________ • CO2 donates _________________________ • to make __________ mitochondria STROMA Hydrogen ENERGY Carbon & oxygen GLUCOSE

    29. SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things • 9-12.L.1.1. Students are able to relate cellular functions and processes to specialized structures within cells. • Photosynthesis and respiration • ATP-ADP energy cycle Role of enzymes Mitochondria Chloroplasts

    30. Core High School Life SciencePerformance Descriptors

    31. SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE:Indicator 1: Understand the fundamental structures, functions, classifications, and mechanisms found in living things. • 9-12.L.1.1A. Students are able to explain the physical and chemical processes of photosynthesis and cell respiration and their importance to plant and animal life. (SYNTHESIS) • Examples: Krebs Cycle

    32. Go Online Internet • Links from the authors on Creatine • Share kimchi lab data • Interactive test • For links on cellular respiration, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3091. • For links on the Krebs cycle, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-3092.