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Originally developed by Dr. Jim Dyer of the University of Florida Modified by Dr. David Agnew, September, 2006 Arkansas State University. Research Applications in Career & Technical Education. Review. Overview of Research. What is research? (review) What are the types of studies?

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Originally developed by Dr. Jim Dyerof the University of FloridaModified by Dr. David Agnew, September, 2006Arkansas State University

Research Applications in Career & Technical Education

Overview of research
Overview of Research

  • What is research? (review)

  • What are the types of studies?

  • What terms are associated with research?

  • What is the purpose of research?

  • What are the characteristics of research?

What is research
What is Research?

  • The systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of phenomenon under consideration Disciplined Inquiry

What are the types of studies
What Are the Types of Studies?

  • Status

    • variable cannot be manipulated by researcher.

  • Associational

    • variable can be manipulated by researcher, but is not.

  • Experimental

    • variable is manipulated by researcher.

What terms are associated with research
What terms are associated with research?

  • Variable

    • any factor having two or more mutually exclusive properties or values.

  • Dependent (criterion) variable

    • Outcome, cannot change.

  • Independent variable

    • can manipulate.


  • Extraneous variable

    • may affect dependent variable and change result.

  • Antecedent variable

    • present at beginning.

  • Covariate

    • antecedent or extraneous variable measured before and after treatment.

Terms continued
Terms (continued)

  • Discrete

    • one specific meaning--hair color, grade (A-F), marital status (S,M,D,W)

  • Continuous

    • can have only one value--IQ, age

  • Dichotomous

    • discrete variable with only two distinct categories--yes/no, gender


  • Hypothesis

    • statement of expectation.

  • Null Hypothesis (HO)

    • stated for no change.

  • Alternate Hypothesis (HA)

    • stated for change.

  • Directional Hypothesis (H1)

    • states direction of change.


  • Cronbach’s alpha

    • measures internal consistency based upon relationship to other statements on instrument.

  • a priori

    • prior to

  • Population (target population)

    • group to which we generalize. (N)

  • Sample

    • smaller group of population. (n)

Terms continued1
Terms (continued)

  • Sampling frame

    • list of accessible people.

  • Experimentally accessible population

    • members of population we can access.

  • Parameter

    • unknown characteristic of the population.

  • Statistic

    • known characteristic of the sample.

What is the purpose of research
What is the Purpose of Research?

  • Describe -- Ex: settings

  • Predict -- Ex: success based on ACT

  • Improve--Ex: teaching methods

  • Explain -- answers “why?”

What are the types of research by purpose
What Are the Types of Research -- by Purpose

  • Basic

    • results in development of new knowledge without concern for how or where it will be used.

  • Applied

    • tests theories developed by basic research.

  • Action

    • has specific application with the decision-maker involved in conducting the research.

Types of research by philosophy
Types of Research -- by Philosophy

  • Quantitative -- (Positivistic)

    • Things are meaningful only if we can verify them with our five senses.

  • Qualitative -- (Post-positivistic)

    • All research is value-laden. Can’t remove self from research.

Types of research by method
Types of Research -- by Method

  • Experimental

  • Correlational

  • Evaluation

  • Historical

  • Naturalistic

  • Survey



Histo al


Eva tion



  • Definition

    • Establishes cause and effect relationship.

    • Systemmatically answers: Is there a difference in characteristic X between and within groups and with and without characteristic Y? (Ex: productivity & background music)


  • Purpose

    • Seeks to identify differences between and/or within groups to the extent they possess characteristics which can be measured in quantitative terms.

  • Example:

    • “The Effect of PowerPoint Visuals on Achievement in a Research Methods Course”


  • Nature

    • Involve systematic manipulation of some characteristic

      • Only way to identify cause and effect

      • Starts with hypothesis (a priori)

      • Write research problem as a question

      • Write hypothesis as an answer to the question (statement)


  • Strengths

    • rigorous; replicable

    • can specify likelihood of errors of inference

    • forces us to be explicit about variables to be studied and hypotheses to be tested

  • Limitations

    • tendency to disvalue qualitative information

    • confuse statistical with logical/practical meaning

    • results are “average,” individuals are nuisances


  • Definition

    • Answers the question: “To what extent are characteristics X and Y related?” (Ex: the louder the music, the higher the productivity).

  • Purpose

    • determines relationship

    • does NOT determine cause

    • predict score on one variable from knowledge of another


  • Nature

    • involves collection of information about several characteristics

    • measures relationship

  • Example:

    • The Relationship Between GRE Scores and Graduate GPA of Agricultural Education Doctoral Students at Iowa State University


  • Strengths

    • analyze relationships among large number of variables in single study

    • provides information on degree of relationship

    • predict characteristic

  • Limitations

    • not cause and effect

    • difficult to identify all variables--best to use lit review


  • Definition

    • Collection and use of information to facilitate decision making or determination of worth

  • Purpose

    • assists in decision making

    • aids in planning

    • assists in meeting accountability demands


  • Nature

    • intentions vary per study

    • results for specific situation only

    • audience is important for design & reporting

    • usually done for a client

  • Example

    • An Assessment of the Grading Practices in the College of Agriculture at Iowa State University


  • Strengths

    • information for program improvement (action)

    • provides accountability information

    • looks at processes and products

  • Limitations

    • danger of being too subjective

    • difficult to evaluate and set criteria for some processes & products (intangible, unintended)


  • Definition

    • narration and description of “true” record of past events, their developmental trends, and their interpretation

    • it is a longitudinal, genetic, or developmental approach in the past

    • attempts to discern actual meaning of primary and secondary sources by subjecting to external and internal criticism


  • Purpose

    • construction of conceptual frameworks

    • collection and analysis of historical evidence

    • determination of meaning

  • Nature

    • involves collection and analysis of primary and secondary sources

    • no variables


  • Example

    • The Origin and Development of Agricultural Education in America

  • Strengths

    • understanding of history

  • Limitations

    • past view is easily distorted in present setting

    • difficult to remain objective--selective searching


  • Definition

    • attends to ordinary happenings and uses common language reporting to provide experience for research audience

  • Purpose

    • oriented to practice, not theory

  • Example

    • Case Studies in Agricultural Education


  • Nature

    • observation and interview techniques used

    • high attention to context

    • narrative reporting with illustrations

    • variables not used as conceptual structure

  • Strengths

    • easy to comprehend by lay people, interesting

    • resists some research oversimplifications


  • Limitations

    • requires special research skills to do properly

    • researcher-biased, objectivity poorly controled

    • difficult to summarize, lots of notes

    • time-consuming to conduct

Survey descriptive
Survey (descriptive)

  • Definition

    • present-oriented methodology used to investigate populations using samples to analyze interrelationships among variables

    • used to collect facts and assess beliefs, interests, and attitudes

  • Example

    • The Career Interests of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

Survey descriptive1
Survey (descriptive)

  • Purpose

    • clarify and describe problems through data gathering process

      • Descriptive -- describes phenomena at point in time

      • Comparative -- compares populations on some criteria

      • Evaluative -- assesses aspects of setting by some criteria

Survey descriptive2
Survey (descriptive)

  • Nature

    • involves identification of population, sampling plan, & variables; data gathering instrument; natural setting

  • Strengths

    • large amount of information

    • can quickly get data

    • well suited for extensive research

Survey descriptive3
Survey (descriptive)

  • Limitations

    • may be superficial, not in-depth

    • in longitudinal studies, difficult to remain in contact with respondents

Stating the research problem
Stating the Research Problem

  • Use a complete sentence with as few words as possible.

  • Limit/focus the statement.

  • Examples:

    • Using learning teams = “What effect does learning teams have on achievement?”

    • Effect of problem solving approach = “What is the effect of the problem solving approach on student achievement, attitude, and retention of subject matter?”

Stating the research problem1
Stating the Research Problem

  • Delimit research -- what will be done?

  • Define terms -- define only those terms which may be confusing or have special meaning.

  • State assumptions -- what do you assume?

  • State research hypotheses and/or research questions -- use these to guide study.

  • Explain importance of study.

Purpose of a lit review
Purpose of a Lit Review

  • What has been done?

  • What was found?

  • Were there problems with prior studies that you can avoid?

  • Where are the holes in the research base? (What has yet to be found?)

Tools of research leedy
Tools of Research (Leedy)

  • Library

  • Measurement techniques--Design

  • Computer Programs (SPSS, SAS)

  • Statistics

  • Writing ability


  • Sources of information

    • Primary sources

    • Secondary sources

  • Conducting the literature review

    • ERIC

    • RIE

    • DAI

Criteria for research project
Criteria for Research Project

  • Universality -- can be completed by anyone

  • Replication -- can be repeated under same conditions with same results

  • Control -- use parameters to control as many variables as possible

  • Measurement -- important to quantify as much as possible

Data collection
Data Collection

  • What data are needed?

  • Where can we get it?

  • How can we get it?

  • How will it be interpreted?

Aggregate data
Aggregate Data

  • Definition of:To gather, collect or assemble. For example, "to aggregate data" means to gather separate sets of data. As a noun, "aggregate data" is data that has been collected from two or more sources.

Ethical standards
Ethical Standards

  • Personal integrity of researcher, fair, honest

  • Right of privacy of participants

  • Disclosure of methods

  • Reason for research

  • Informed willingness

  • Respect for integritity of individual

  • Acknowledge financial support


  • Hawthorne Effect -- any change in environment produces a change in response.

  • John Henry Effect -- Control group sees itself in competition with main group.

  • Pygmalian Effect -- We see what we want to see.


  • Experimenter -- researcher knowingly or unknowingly influences application or observation of treatment.

  • Statistical -- related data are treated as being independent in the statistical analysis.

Bias in research design
Bias in Research Design

  • Deliberate -- check numbers

  • Non-deliberate -- phrases, titles, etc. (“What’s wrong with Ag. Ed.?)

  • Selection

    • Volunteers

    • Mortality (why did they leave)

    • Groups that differ

    • Learning time

    • Teacher Quality

Selecting a research problem
Selecting a Research Problem

  • ID problem--What would you like to do?

  • What are the variables?

  • What are the possible results?

  • How will you measure the results?

  • Who will be involved?

  • How will you conduct the study?

  • What problems will you encounter?