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Christian History. A Survey. Two Great Questions. Has it ever been this bad before? Where did we come from and why do we do what we do?. Two Great Sources. The Word of God The History of the Church. Our Approach. A survey—highlights not details For information

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two great questions
Two Great Questions
  • Has it ever been this bad before?
  • Where did we come from and why do we do what we do?
two great sources
Two Great Sources
  • The Word of God
  • The History of the Church
our approach
Our Approach
  • A survey—highlights not details
  • For information
  • To gain encouragement (Romans 15:4)
christianity is rooted in history
Christianity is Rooted in History
  • The factual history of Israel
  • The factual history of the Person and Work of Jesus Christ
  • The factual history of the New Testament Church
the big picture
The Big Picture


30 AD

A “Fun” Quiz

score your quiz
Score Your Quiz

How Did You Do?

from pentecost to patmos

From Pentecost to Patmos

The Apostolic Age (30-95 AD)

paths of the apostles
Paths of the Apostles





paths of the apostles1
Paths of the Apostles


James the Just



external dangers persecution
External Dangers: Persecution
  • Jewish
    • Stephen
    • James
  • Roman
    • Nero (60’s AD)
      • Peter
      • Paul
    • Domitian (90’s AD)
  • Sporadic & Disorganized
internal dangers heresies
Internal Dangers: Heresies
  • Gnosticism
  • Judaistic Legalism
the fathers

The Fathers

After the Apostles

the apostolic to post apostolic period
The Apostolic to Post-Apostolic Period

Apostolic Teaching

30-100 AD

Apostolic Teaching

Apostolic Fathers

100-200 AD

Church Fathers

200-330 AD

Persecuted Minority


meet the parents fathers
Meet the Parents (Fathers)
  • Clement of Rome
  • Ignatius of Antioch
  • Polycarp of Smyrna
  • Hermas (the Shepherd)
clement of rome
Clement of Rome
  • Elder of the church in Rome
  • Proponent of organization (Letter to Corinth)
  • Became the “bishop” of Rome
ignatius of antioch
Ignatius of Antioch
  • Martyred in 110 AD
  • En route to Rome, wrote famous letter
  • Promoted hierarchy of church leadership
    • Bishop
    • Elders
    • Deacon
  • Especially focused on a “central bishop”
polycarp of smyrna izmir turkey
Polycarp of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
  • Martyred 155 AD
  • Example of Godliness
  • “How shall I deny Him who has done me nothing but good these 85 years?”
hermas the shepherd
Hermas (The Shepherd)
  • Roman Christian
  • Claimed visions from God
  • Writings considered “almost scriptural”
  • A call to repentance
the fruit of the fathers
The Fruit of the Fathers
  • Split with Judaism—move toward Gentile dominance
  • Rise of the “clergy”—the seeds of the papacy
  • Intrusion of “works salvation”
  • Early distinctions between eastern and western Christianity (Greek vs. Roman)
move from congregational to clerical leadership
Move from Congregational to Clerical Leadership

“Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be; even as where Jesus may be there is the universal church. It is not lawful apart from the bishop to baptize or hold a love feast (communion).”

early emphasis on works salvation
Early Emphasis on Works Salvation

“Happy are we, dear friends, if we keep God’s commandments in the harmony of love, so that by love our sins may be forgiven us.”

the rise of rome

The Rise of Rome

“The City of God”

key questions
Key Questions
  • How did the Church of Rome come to the Catholic Church?
  • Who were the key figures that lead to its rise?
  • What difference has it made to us today?
the period of roman dominance
The Period of Roman Dominance

Rise of Roman Catholicism


Roman Corruption


The Dark Ages


Corrupt Mixture of Earthly and Spiritual Power


factors leading to the rise of rome
Factors Leading to the Rise of Rome
  • Emergence of the “monarchial bishop”
  • Legalization of Christianity
  • Decline of other “centers of power”
  • Creation of the Eastern Empire
  • Defensive moves against heresies






defenses against error
Defenses Against Error
  • The Canon of Scripture (4th Century)
  • Church Councils (e.g. Nicaea)
  • Pronouncements of the Roman bishop
the roman lineup
The Roman Lineup
  • Peter I (not really!)
  • Damasus I (366-384AD)
  • Leo the Great (440-461AD)
  • Gregory the Great (590-604AD)
damasus i
Damasus I
  • Claimed “apostolic succession” from Peter
  • Commissioned the “Latin Vulgate” translation of Scripture

366-384 AD

leo i
Leo I
  • Saved Rome from Attila the Hun
gregory the great pope 1 or 64
Gregory the Great (Pope #1 or #64)
  • Took title of Pope (Father) and Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest)
  • Consolidated Europe under Catholic Religion
  • Sent Roman missionaries
  • Wrote liturgy
  • Introduced “purgatory”

590-604 AD

so what did all this mean by 600 ad
So What Did All This Mean?By 600 AD…
  • The “Church” became a spiritual-political organization
  • The “Clergy” became a career path to wealth and influence
  • “Grace” was channeled via the Church, its priests, and its Sacraments
  • “Tradition” was placed on par with Scripture
  • Pagan practices were absorbed into church activity

And we enter…

The Dark Ages

the high middle ages

The High Middle Ages

All Roads Lead to Rome

800-1300 AD

the medieval church
The Medieval Church

800 1000 1300

Holy Roman Empire


Holy Roman Empire (German)



Roman Catholicism

East-West Church

Eastern Orthodoxy

political holy roman empire
Political: Holy Roman Empire
  • Charlemagne (800 AD)
  • Otto I (962 AD)
  • Early stages of “nation states”
  • Set the stage for the German Reformation
political the roman church
Political: The Roman Church
  • Investiture Controversy
  • Multiple Popes
  • Pope on a Rope
  • Use of “ecclesiastical weapons”

Henry IV Repents Before Pope Gregory VII

political the great schism
Political: The Great Schism
  • Eastern Church (Greek)
    • Greek
    • Anti-Icon
  • Western Church (Roman)
    • Latin
    • Images
    • Filioque Question

Pope Leo IX

Michael Celularius

political the crusades
Political: The Crusades
  • First Crusade 1095 AD
  • Second Crusade 1147 AD
  • Third Crusade 1189 AD
theology new doctrines new orders
Theology: New Doctrines & New Orders
  • Scholasticism
    • Reason Over Scripture
  • Transubstantiation
  • Sacramental Salvation
  • Monastic Orders
    • Benedictines
    • Franciscans
    • Dominicans
    • Cistercians
by 1300
By 1300…
  • Church had devolved into an

“ecclesio-political” machine

  • Corruption was rampant
  • Salvation was taught to be through the church & sacraments
  • The stage was set for the Reformation
something is rotten in rome

Something is Rotten in Rome

The Decline of the Roman Church

1300-1500 AD

the declining church
The Declining Church

1300 1400 1500

The Emergence of the “Modern World”

The Spiritual Decline of Romanism

John Wycliffe (England)

Jon Hus (Czech)

the world in ascendance the church in decline


Rise of Middle Class


Nation States



Christian Humanism

The World in Ascendance—The Church in Decline
a true renaissance man
A “True Renaissance Man”


Da Vinci



the world in ascendance the church in decline1


Rise of Middle Class


Nation States



Christian Humanism

Papal Humiliation

Capture of Boniface

Clement in Avignon

Multiple Popes

Broken “Succession”

Conciliar Movement

Moral & Spiritual Corruption

Murders & Immorality


Superstition over Scripture

Position vs. Character


The World in Ascendance—The Church in Decline

Pope Clement VII

Pope Boniface

John Tetzel

early reformers pre 1517
Early Reformers (Pre-1517)
  • German Mystics
  • John Wycliffe (England) 1325-1284
  • John Hus (Bohemia) 1372-1415
john wycliffe
John Wycliffe
  • Scripture into English
  • Priesthood of Believers
  • Authority in Character not Title
  • Anti-Transubstantiation
john hus
John Hus
  • Follower of Wycliffe
  • Preached against Indulgences
  • Preached the Gospel
  • The lines were being drawn
  • The world would never be the same
  • The wood was on the pile
  • A match was needed
the swiss reformation

The Swiss Reformation

The Center of European Protestantism

two major players
Two Major Players

Ulrich Zwingli


John Calvin


ulrich zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli
  • Priest & Preacher (pre-dated Luther)
  • Zurich Pastorate
    • Verse by Verse
    • “Sausage Controversy”
    • 67 Conclusions
    • Official Protestant City
  • Military Leader
    • Sent missionaries
    • Jacob Kaiser martyred
    • Led campaign against Catholic cantons
    • Killed in battle
  • Succeeded by Heinrich Bullinger
john jean calvin
John (Jean) Calvin
  • French exile to Basel
    • Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion (at 25)
  • Moved to Geneva
    • Partnered with William Farel
    • Created systematic approach to the faith
    • Exiled to Strasbourg
    • Recalled to restore order in Geneva
    • Wrote Commentaries on the Holy Scripture
    • Ministered for 27 years
result of the reformation
Result of the Reformation
  • Lutheranism
  • Calvinistic Presbyterianism
  • Anglican Protestantism
the english reformation1
The English Reformation

1500 1600

The Plethora of English Leaders

The Impact of the English Bible

The Impact of the English Throne

uniqueness 1 no specific leader
Uniqueness #1: No Specific Leader
  • Thomas Cranmer
  • Hugh Latimer
  • John Frith
  • Thomas Bilney
  • Anne Boleyn
  • Farmers
  • Merchants
  • Unknown Preachers



Anne Boleyn

the martyrdom of ridley latimer
The Martyrdom of Ridley & Latimer

“Be of good courage, Master Ridley, and play the man; we shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out.”

uniqueness 2 the word of god
Uniqueness #2: The Word of God
  • Jon Wycliffe (1320-1384)
  • William Tyndale (1494-1536)
    • Fled to Germany
    • Lived in Holland
    • Martyred in Belgium
  • Dozens of Preachers
persecution of evangelical christians
Persecution of Evangelical Christians
  • New Testament Banned
  • Cardinal Wolsey
  • Thomas More
  • 50,000-100,000 Martyred
gradual reformation of the church
Gradual Reformation of the Church
  • Edward VI
  • Queen Mary (aka Bloody Mary)
  • Elizabeth I
a mixed outcome
A Mixed Outcome
  • A Romish Anglican Church
  • A Protestant Anglican Church
  • Puritanism
  • A Church Ready for the Impact of Scottish Presbyterianism


Evangelical Decline & Revival

the period of awakenings
The Period of Awakenings

1700 1900

The Moravian Revival

The First Great Awakening



The Evangelical Awakenings

the moravian revival
The Moravian Revival
  • Lutheran Decline
  • Prince Nicholas Von Zinzendorf (1700-1760)
  • Christian Commune
  • Revival
  • Impacted Wesley
first great awakening england
First Great Awakening (England)
  • John Wesley (1703-1791)
    • Anglican
    • Preached in the open air
    • Founded “Methodism”
first great awakening america
First Great Awakening (America)
  • Jonathan Edwards (local)
  • George Whitfield (1714-1770)
    • Massive appeal
    • Strong Calvinist
    • Influenced the Revolution
the evangelical awakenings
The Evangelical Awakenings
  • The First (1802-1812)
    • Ivy League
    • Unitarianism
  • The Second (1857-1862)
    • North: New York City
    • South: Confederate Army
the rise of modern missions

The Rise of Modern Missions

The “Golden Age”

the great commission
The Great Commission

“All authority is given to me in heaven and earth. Therefore, as you go, disciple the peoples—baptizing them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit and teaching them to obey all that I have commanded. And, behold, I am with you even to the end of the world.”

--Matthew 28:18-20

the golden age
The Golden Age




British Empire

India & South Asia Missions

China Missions

Africa Missions

Muslim Missions

causes for the rise of missions
Causes for the Rise of Missions
  • The Awakenings
  • The Rediscovery of the Priesthood of Believers
  • Rise in Global Trade
  • Growth of the British Empire
  • Wealth of the Middle Class
the players

The Players

A List of Household Names

william carey 1761 1834
William Carey (1761-1834)
  • British Teacher/Pastor
  • Proposed organized missions
  • Went to Bengal (Bangladesh)
  • Formed Baptist Missionary Society

“Attempt great things for God; expect great things from God”

adoniram judson 1788 1850
Adoniram Judson (1788-1850)
  • American
  • Congregationalist
  • Became Baptist
  • Burma
david livingstone 1813 1873
David Livingstone (1813-1873)
  • Scottish
  • Planned for China but ended up in Africa
  • Explored much of African continent

“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”

H.M. Stanley

hudson taylor 1832 1905
Hudson Taylor (1832-1905)
  • Medical Student
  • Called to China on Brighton Beach
  • Opened the interior of China
  • Founded China Inland Mission (OMF)
  • Father of “Faith Missions”
a t pierson 1837 1911
A.T. Pierson (1837-1911)
  • American Presbyterian
  • Pastoral Catalyst for Global Missions
    • US
    • England
c t studd 1860 1931
C.T. Studd (1860-1931)
  • English Cricket Star
  • Member of the “Cambridge Seven”
  • Missionary to China (CIM)
  • Missionary to Africa (WEC)
guess who
Guess Who
  • Calvin College
  • Florida Atlantic University
  • Westminster Seminary
  • Pastorates in NJ, FL, and NC
  • Missionaries to Eritrea

Don and Jeannette Taws

major impact
Major Impact
  • Countless Para-Church Agencies
  • Gospel Spread to Every Country
  • Missions Part of Fabric of Evangelical Churches
missions today
Missions Today
  • Sending has shifted to other countries
  • More countries are closed to missionaries
  • Alternative strategies are being created
  • Missions minded people are bypassing the agencies in favor of direct engagement
contrast 2 traditional vs contemporary churches
Contrast #2: Traditional vs. Contemporary Churches
  • Styles:
    • Music
    • Dress
    • Format
  • Underlying Reasons:
    • Appeal to the Past
    • Appeal to the Public
    • Appeal to Scripture
contrast 3 impact vs relevance
Contrast #3: Impact vs. Relevance
  • Impact: What difference are we making?
  • Relevance: Does anybody listen to what we say?
result of these tensions emergence of new types of churches
Result of These Tensions: Emergence of “New” Types of Churches
  • Media/Celebrity Churches
  • Emerging Churches
  • Organic/House Churches
  • Mega-Churches/Relevant Environment Churches
  • Renewed Traditional Churches
media celebrity churches
Media-Celebrity Churches
  • Mass Appeal
  • Entertainment Focused:
    • Drama
    • Music
    • Glitz
  • “Attractive” Pastoral Teams
emerging churches organic churches
Emerging Churches & Organic Churches
  • Emerging:
    • Geared to the ADHD generation
    • Gen Y
    • Simultaneous Multi-Media
  • Organic:
    • Without structure
    • In homes
mega churches
  • Focus on “relevance”
  • Stripping all but the “gospel”
  • Mass appeal & seeker emphasis
  • Heavy use of “marketing thought”
  • Multiple “campuses”
  • Built on “brands” and “names”
mega churches pro con
Positive Side:

Focused on the gospel

Appeal to the unchurched

Evangelistic effort and impact

Massive cash generation


Boundaries & slippery slopes

Watering down the truth

Minimal discipleship

More strategy than spirituality

Relocation of malcontented sheep

Mega Churches: Pro & Con
renewed traditional churches
Renewed Traditional Churches
  • Focused on Scripture
  • Connected to their history
  • Emphasis on reverence in worship
  • Structured
  • Liturgical
  • A time of CONFUSION
  • A time of TRANSITION
  • Where’s it all headed?
what s next

What’s Next?

The Future of the Church in America

  • Decline & disenfranchisement of the American church
  • Fragmentation of organized mission activity
  • Ascendance of the Asian-Chinese church
3 factors we ll face in the u s
3 Factors We’ll Face in the U.S.
  • Ultra-liberal, Established Church
  • Government Interference
  • Discipleship & Persecution
the mainline established church
The Mainline, Established Church
  • Fulfill the human need for “worship”
  • A “god” of humanistic design
  • Focus on social fellowship and social issues
  • Christ presented as “a way” to God
government interference
Government Interference
  • Elimination or limitation of tax-exempt status
  • Control of Hiring Practices
  • Application of Tolerance Doctrine to teaching
    • Acceptable messages
    • “Hate Speech”
persecution of evangelicals
Persecution of Evangelicals
  • Starker difference between believers & unbelievers
  • Decline of “professors” vs. “possessors”
  • Restriction of Free Speech via the Tolerance Doctrine
  • Ridicule and alienation via media
the shape of the church in america
The Shape of the Church in America
  • The Good News:
    • Jesus Christ will continue to bring people to himself
  • The Unknown News:
    • Revival will change the outcome
  • The Bad News:
    • If things remain the same…
a possible landscape
A Possible Landscape
  • Public “open & tolerant” church
  • Despised evangelicalism
  • Informal & home oriented Christianity

“Upon this rock I will build my church and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.”

--The Lord Jesus