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Church History and Christian Ministry. Augustine (354 – 430). Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274). Martin Luther (1483 – 1546). Karl Barth (1886 – 1968). The Middle Ages. Dominated by Augustin and Platonism. Emphasis on Other-Worldly Images. The Middle Ages. Dominated by Augustin and Platonism.

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slide1

Church History and Christian Ministry

Augustine (354 – 430)

Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274)

Martin Luther (1483 – 1546)

Karl Barth (1886 – 1968)

slide2

The Middle Ages

Dominated by Augustin and Platonism

Emphasis on Other-Worldly Images

slide3

The Middle Ages

Dominated by Augustin and Platonism

Emphasis on Other-Worldly Images

The Crusades opened the doors to classic humanism and a new interest in nature

slide4

The Middle Ages

Dominated by Augustin and Platonism

Emphasis on Other-Worldly Images

The Crusades opened the doors to classic humanism and a new interest in nature

slide5

The Middle Ages

Dominated by Augustin and Platonism

Emphasis on Other-Worldly Images

The Crusades opened the doors to classic humanism and a new interest in nature

…and out of this, the Renaissance

slide6

The Middle Ages

Dominated by Augustin and Platonism

Emphasis on Other-Worldly Images

The Crusades opened the doors to classic humanism and a new interest in nature

…and out of this, the Renaissance

slide7

The Renaissance (1400s)

1. Humanism

Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man (c. 1485) represented his depiction of the idea that “man” is the measure of all proportion

slide8

The Renaissance (1400s)

1. Humanism

2. Wealth

slide9

The Renaissance (1400s)

1. Humanism

2. Wealth

The Medici, and other Italian banking families, amassed vast fortunes trading in imports from the east brought back by Crusaders and others

slide10

The Renaissance (1400s)

1. Humanism

2. Wealth

3. Corruption

slide11

The Renaissance (1400s)

1. Humanism

2. Wealth

3. Corruption

Papal power to sell “forgiveness of sins” led to widespread abuse and corruption, a force that naturally led to the cry for reformation

Johann Tetzel

slide13

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Wealth flows into Italy – Medici and Florence

Cosimo sets up one of earliest banks

Patron of arts

slide14

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

slide15

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Continued his father’s business

Died early of lung disease

slide16

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

slide17

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Giulio (1478 – 1534)

Michelangelo – adopted into family

slide18

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

slide19

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Giovanni and Julius were driven out in 1494.

Giovanni is cardinal – but now no power base

slide20

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Republican Florence (1494 – 1511)

Michelangelo stays to support the republic

Produced the David, which became a political statement

slide21

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Republican Florence (1494 – 1512)

Michelangelo stays to support the republic

Produced the David, which became a political statement

Put in front of city hall: David (Florence) v. Goliath (Medici)

Florence is under the care of Machiavelli

slide22

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Republican Florence (1494 – 1512)

Michelangelo stays to support the republic

Produced the David, which became a political statement

Put in front of city hall: David (Florence) v. Goliath (Medici)

Florence is under the care of Machiavelli

Savoranola is political/religious reformer

slide23

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Republican Florence (1494 – 1512)

Michelangelo stays to support the republic

Produced the David, which became a political statement

Put in front of city hall: David (Florence) v. Goliath (Medici)

Florence is under the care of Machiavelli

Savoranola is political/religious reformer

slide24

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Republican Florence (1494 – 1512)

Giovanni retakes Florence with Pope’s Help (1511)

slide25

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Republican Florence (1494 – 1511)

Giovanni retakes Florence with Pope’s Help (1511)

Machiavelli tortured and exiled, wrote The Prince

Pope Julius II dies; Giovanni elected pope (Leo X, 1513)

slide26

Renaissance – a short history of Florence

Cosimo (1389 – 1464)

Piero de Medici (1464 – 1470)

Lorenzo (1470 – 1492)

Giovanni (1475 – 1521)

Republican Florence (1494 – 1511)

Giovanni retakes Florence with Pope’s Help (1511)

Machiavelli tortured and exiled, wrote The Prince

Pope Julius II dies; Giovanni elected pope (Leo X, 1513)

Bankrupted the papacy in about a year

slide27

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Luther: b. 1483 – Lorenzo is controlling Florence

Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)

Hans Luther was part of rising peasant class

Invested heavily in Martin’s education

Enrolled at University of Erfurt (1501)

1502 – graduated 2nd in class.

1505 – M.A. in law

The lightening storm incident

slide28

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling Florence

Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)

Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)

Joined Augustinian monastery in 1515

Ceaseless anxiety as a monk

1510: visited Rome for first and only time: bitterly disillusioned

1515 – started commentary on Romans – stuck in Romans 1:15ff

Johann Tetzel came selling papal indulgences

slide29

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling Florence

Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)

Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)

Joined Augustinian monastery in 1515

Ceaseless anxiety as a monk

1510: visited Rome for first and only time: bitterly disillusioned

1515 – started commentary on Romans – stuck in Romans 1:15ff

Johann Tetzel came selling papal indulgences

Luther wrote the 95 Theses – critical of theology of indulgences

slide30

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling Florence

Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)

Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)

Joined Augustinian monastery in 1515

Ceaseless anxiety as a monk

1510: visited Rome for first and only time: bitterly disillusioned

1515 – started commentary on Romans – stuck in Romans 1:15ff

Johann Tetzel came selling papal indulgences

Luther wrote the 95 Theses – critical of theology of indulgences

slide31

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling Florence

Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)

Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)

The Indulgence Controversy (1515 – 1521)

The 95 Theses swept through Germany and all of Europe

Pope Leo didn’t take Luther too seriously at the beginning

A series of meetings culminated at Worms in 1521

Luther excommunicated – “Here I Stand” speech

slide32

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling Florence

Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)

Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)

The Indulgence Controversy (1515 – 1521)

Luther the Reformer (1521 – 1546)

1521 – 22: Wartburg Castle; translates New Testament

slide33

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling Florence

Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)

Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)

The Indulgence Controversy (1515 – 1521)

Luther the Reformer (1521 – 1546)

1521 – 22: Wartburg Castle; translates New Testament

1524 – Peasants’ War – political revolt not supported by Luther

1525 – Married Katie von Bora

slide34

Martin Luther and the Reformation

Luther: b. 1483 – Cosimo is controlling Florence

Luther’s Early Life (1483 – 1505)

Luther the Monk (1505 – 1515)

The Indulgence Controversy (1515 – 1521)

Luther the Reformer (1521 – 1546)

1521 – 22: Wartburg Castle; translates New Testament

1524 – Peasants’ War – political revolt not supported by Luther

1525 – Married Katie von Bora

1529 – Wrote hymn: A Mighty Fortress

Colloquy of Marburg: join Swiss and German Ref

1546: Death of Luther

slide35

The Reformation (1500s)

Emphasis on sources over tradition

slide36

The Reformation (1500s)

Emphasis on sources over tradition

Emphasis on conscience over authority

Unless I am convinced by proofs from Scriptures or by plain and clear reasons and arguments, I can and will not retract, for it is neither safe nor wise to do anything against conscience. Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen." – Martin Luther

slide37

The Reformation (1500s)

Emphasis on sources over tradition

Emphasis on conscience over authority

Emphasis on productive over slavish labor

…which all tended to produce a new interest in science and its utility

slide38

“The invention of the printing-press prepared the way for popular education. The Reformation first utilized the press on a large scale, and gave a powerful impulse to common schools. The genius of Protestantism favors the general diffusion of knowledge. It elevates the laity, emancipates private judgment, and stimulates the sense of personal responsibility. Every man should be trained to a position of Christian freedom and self-government.” – Philip Schaff

slide39

Four Solas of the Reformation

Sola Fides

+ Works

Sola Scriptura

+ Tradition

Sola Gracia

+ Merit

Sola Christus

+ The Church