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DERMATOLOGY. DESQUAMATION OF THE SKIN. ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME. Iris and target-like patterns with concentric macules and papules on the palm. Multiple, confluent target-like papules and vesicles on the central facies. Bullae on the lips and the buccal mucosa . ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME.

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dermatology
DERMATOLOGY

DESQUAMATION OF THE SKIN

erythema multiforme
ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME

Iris and target-like patterns with concentric macules and papules on the palm

Multiple, confluent target-like papules and vesicles on the central facies. Bullae on the lips and the buccal mucosa.

erythema multiforme major
ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME MAJOR
  • Erythematous iris and target-like papules, plaques, bullae, and erosions on the trunk, arms, neck, and face.
  • Mucosal involvement is manifested by erosive lip lesions and conjunctivitis.
erythema multiforme major1
ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME MAJOR

Child with erythema multiforme, following smallpox vaccination

stevens johnson syndrome
STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME

Generalized eruption of lesions that initially had a target-like appearance but then became confluent, brightly erythematous, and bullous. The patient had extensive mucous membrane involvement and tracheobronchitis.

toxic epidermal necrolysis
TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS

Generalized, macular eruption with some target-like lesions which rapidly developed epidermal necrosis, positive Nikolsky's sign, bulla formation, and denuded erosive areas. This eruption was due to sulfonamide drugs.

staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
STAPHYLOCOCCAL SCALDED-SKIN SYNDROME

In this infant, painful, tender, diffuse erythema was followed by generalized epidermal desquamation.

Staph. aureus had colonized the nares with perioral impetigo, the site of exotoxin production.

drug reactions
DRUG REACTIONS

Cutaneous necrosis: warfarin

Bilateral areas of cutaneous infarction with purple-to-black coloration of the breast surrounded by area of erythema, occurred on 5th day of warfarin therapy

drug reactions1
DRUG REACTIONS

Ampicillin

Symmetrically arranged, brightly erythematous macules and papules, discrete in some areas and confluent in others on the back and extremities.

drug reactions2
DRUG REACTIONS

Penicillin

Large, urticarial wheals on face, neck, & trunk with angioedema in periorbital region

drug reactions3
DRUG REACTIONS

Amiodarone

Drug-induced pigmentation:

Striking slate-gray pigmentation in facial distribution.

Blue color (ceruloderma) is due to deposition of melanin contained in macrophages and endothelial cells in the dermis.

Pigmentation is reversible, but it may take > 1 year!

In this patient it took 33 months for the ceruloderma to disappear.

case study
CASE STUDY

A 14-year-old boy presented to the ER complaining of 4 days of increasing dysphagia, dysuria, photophobia, and a macular rash extending from trunk toward the extremities – some lesions are forming bullae.

He has been using tetracycline for 2 weeks for acne. Vital signs are normal, except for a temperature of 103.1oF. He appears ill and had copious amounts of ocular drainage and small vesicles on the nasal and oral mucosa. Vesicles are also present on the penis and scrotum.

case study1
CASE STUDY
  • Labs revealed slight leukocytosis of 11.7
  • Blood cultures and herpes tests were negative

Most likely diagnosis:

Presumptive cause:

Treatment:

Steven-Johnson syndrome

Tetracycline

Stop the drug. IV steroids.

case study2
CASE STUDY

The oral lesions became so painful, the patient could not swallow his own saliva. TPN started. The patient was given a patient-controlled anesthesia pump for self-administration of morphine.

As the vesicles spread, they coalesced into larger bullae and sloughed off. Because of the need for increasing wound care, the patient was transferred to the ICU.

Ophthalmologic and urology consultation was obtained to address symptoms.

case study4
CASE STUDY

The area of denuded skin increased, and this development required even more labor-intensive treatment – patient was transferred to the county burn unit for wound management.

His condition improved during the next two weeks, and he eventually recovered with minimal scarring. Follow-up continued on an outpatient basis in the Eye, Skin and Urology clinics.