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CHAPTER 14 SECTION 1 DICTATORS OF WAR. THE EFFECTS OF WWI AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION TOUCHED ALMOST EVERY CORNER OF THE WORLD – LED TO THE RISE OF A NEW KIND OF BRUTAL DICTATORSHIP – THE TOTALITARIAN STATE – WOULD DESTROY THE PEACE ESTABLISHED AFTER

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slide1

CHAPTER 14

SECTION 1

DICTATORS OF WAR

slide2

THE EFFECTS OF WWI AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION

  • TOUCHED ALMOST EVERY CORNER OF THE WORLD
  • – LED TO THE RISE OF A NEW KIND OF BRUTAL
  • DICTATORSHIP
  • – THE TOTALITARIAN STATE
  • – WOULD DESTROY THE PEACE ESTABLISHED AFTER
  • WORLD WAR I AND SPARK A NEW EVEN DEADLIER
  • GLOBAL CONFLICT
slide3

NOVEMBER 1918

  • –WORLD WAR I ENDED WHEN GERMANY SURRENDERED
  • TO THE ALLIES
  • 1919
  • – DELEGATES FROM 27 NATIONS MET IN VERSAILLES TO
  • COME UP WITH THE PEACE AGREEMENT
  • – THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  • – BRITAIN, FRANCE AND THE U.S. HAD THE MOST SAY IN
  • MOST OF THE DECISIONS
  • – GERMANY RESENTED IT MOST BECAUSE IT WAS THE
  • ROUGHEST ON THEM
slide4

ITALY AND JAPAN

  • – BOTH MEMBERS OF THE ALILES
  • – DID NOT LIKE THE TREATY EITHER
  • – DID NOT GET AS MUCH LAND AS THEY WANTED
  • “THE WAR TO END ALL WARS”
  • - AS WOODROW WILSON CALLED WWI
  • – LEFT BEHIND BITTERNESS, ANGER, FRUSTRATION AND
  • DESPAIR AND A DESIRE FOR REVENGE
slide5

Totalitarianism

  • MANY NATIONS EMBRACED REPRESSIVE
  • DICTATORSHIPS AND TOTALITARIANISM
  • – A THEORY OF GOVERNMENT IN WHICH A SINGLE
  • PARTY OR LEADER CONTROLS THE ECONOMIC,
  • SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIVES OF ITS PEOPLE
  • TOTALITARIANISM IS MORE EXTREME THAN A SIMPLE
  • DICTATORSHIP
  • – TOTALITARIANISM RESULTED BECAUSE OF THE
  • DESTRUCTION AND BITTERNESS LEFT BEHIND BY
  • WORLD WAR I AND THE DESPERATION CAUSED BY THE
  • GREAT DEPRESSION
characteristics of a totalitarian state
Characteristics of a Totalitarian State
  • SINGLE PARTY DICTATORSHIP EXERTING
  • CONTROL OVER ALL ASPECTS OF LIFE
  • STRONG, CHARISMATIC LEADER OFTEN AT
  • HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
  • 3. STATE CONTROL OF THE ECONOMY
  • USE OF POLICE, SPIES AND TERROR TO
  • ENFORCE THE WILL OF THE STATE
  • GOVERNMENT CONTROL OF THE MEDIA
  • AND USE OF PROPAGANDA TO
  • INDOCTRINATE CITIZENS
  • USE OF SCHOOLS AND YOUTH
  • ORGANIZATIONS TO SPREAD IDEOLOGY TO
  • CHILDREN
  • STRICT CENSORSHIP OF ARTISTS,
  • INTELLECTUALS AND POLITICAL RIVALS
  • WITH DISSENTING OPINIONS
soviet union italy
Soviet Union & Italy
  • THE 1917 COMMUNIST REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA INAUGURATED THE FIRST TOTALITARIAN STATE
  • – VLADIMIR LENIN
  • – CREATED THE BEGINNINGS OF A
  • TOTALITARIAN SYSTEM OF CONTROL
  • TO MAINTAIN POWER
  • – RESULTED IN CIVIL WAR, STARVATION,
  • FAMINE AND THE DEATH OF MILLIONS
  • OF RUSSIANS
soviet union italy1
Soviet Union & Italy
  • JOSEPH STALIN
  • – TOOK CONTROL OF RUSSIA AFTER
  • LENIN'S DEATH IN 1924
  • – STALIN WAS CRUEL, SUSPICIOUS,
  • RUTHLESS AND TYRANNICAL
  • – DID NOT THINK TWICE ABOUT
  • KILLING RIVALS OR SENTENCING
  • INNOCENT PEOPLE TO DEATH
soviet union italy2
Soviet Union & Italy
  • STALIN'S EFFORTS TO TRANSFORM THE
  • SOVIET UNION INTO AN INDUSTRIAL
  • POWER AND FORM STATE-RUN
  • COLLECTIVE FARMS RESULTED IN THE
  • DEATHS OF ABOUT 10 MILLION PEOPLE
  • DURING THE GREAT TERROR STALIN
  • PURGED THE COMMUNIST PARTYOF
  • REAL OR SUSPECTED TRAITORS IN THE
  • 1930S
  • – ORDERING THE DEATHS OR
  • IMPRISONMENT OF UP TO A MILLION
  • PEOPLE
  • – ALSO INCLUDED MOST THE HIGHER
  • OFFICERS OF THE RED ARMY
soviet union italy3
Soviet Union & Italy
  • A COMBINATION OF FEAR AND MASSIVE PROPAGANDA KEPT STALIN IN POWER
soviet union italy4
Soviet Union & Italy
  • ITALIAN TOTALITARIANISM WAS A DIRECT
  • RESULT OF THE WAR AND PEACE
  • TREATIES
  • – ITALY DID NOT GET THE LAND ALONG
  • THE ADRIATIC COAST IT HAD HOPED TO
  • OBTAIN FROM THE DIVISION OF
  • AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
  • THE POSTWAR ECONOMIC DEPRESSION
  • MADE IT DIFFICULT FOR RETURNING
  • VETERANS TO FIND JOBS, A COMMUNIST
  • MOVEMENT WAS GROWING AND THE
  • GOVERNMENT SEEMED WEAK
soviet union italy5
Soviet Union & Italy
  • BENITO MUSSOLINI
  • – FOUNDED THE FASCIST PARTY
  • – A RIGHT WING ORGANIZATION
  • THAT TRUMPETED NATIONALISM
  • AND PROMISED TO MAKE ITALY
  • GREAT AGAIN
  • FOLLOWERS OF MUSSOLINI
  • – KNOWN AS BLACKSHIRTS
  • – FOUGHT AGAINST SOCIALISTS
  • AND COMMUNISTS
  • – THE ITALIAN KING ASKED
  • MUSSOLINI TO FORM A
  • GOVERNMENT BECAUSE HE
  • FEARED A REVOLUTION
  • – MUSSOLINI CALLED HIMSELF
  • “IL DUCE” - MEANING “THE LEADER”
soviet union italy6
Soviet Union & Italy
  • MUSSOLINI:

1. OUTLAWED POLITICAL PARTIES

2. TOOK OVER THE PRESS

3. CREATED A SECRET POLICE

4. ORGANIZED YOUTH GROUPS TO

INDOCTRINATE THE YOUNG

5. SUPPRESSED STRIKES

6. OPPOSED LIBERALISM AND

SOCIALISM

  • MUSSOLINI'S HOLD OVER ITALY WAS
  • NEVER AS POWERFUL AS STALIN'S GRIP
  • ON THE SOVIET UNION
leaders in germany japan
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • AFTER WORLD WAR I GERMANY
  • BECAME A DEMOCRACY
  • – THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC
  • – STRUGGLED THROUGHOUT THE 1920S
  • TO ESTABLISH A FUNCTIONAL
  • DEMOCRACY
  • – GERMANY WAS BESET BY SEVERE
  • ECONOMIC TROUBLES IN THE 1920S
  • – INCLUDING INFLATION
  • WEIMAR REPUBLIC WAS ALSO IN BAD
  • SHAPE BECAUSE OF ANGER OVER THE
  • TREATY OF VERSAILLES AND INTERNAL
  • DISUNITY
leaders in germany japan1
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • THE GREAT DEPRESSION HIT THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC HARD
  • – ANTIDEMOCRATIC PARTIES ON
  • THE RIGHT
  • – ESPECIALLY THE NATIONAL
  • SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS‘
  • PARTY OR - NAZI PARTY
  • – THREATENED THE REPUBLIC
leaders in germany japan2
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • NAZIS WERE NOT SOCIALISTS
  • – THEY OPPOSED SOCIALISM,
  • COMMUNISM OR ANY OTHER
  • “ISM” THAT PROMOTED CLASS
  • INTERESTS OR WORKERS‘
  • RIGHTS ABOVE GERMAN ETHNIC
  • SOLIDARITY
leaders in germany japan3
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • ADOLF HITLER
  • – LEADER OF THE NAZI PARTY
  • – FORMERLY A FAILED ARTIST, A
  • WOUNDED AND DECORATED WORLD
  • WAR I SOLDIER AND A PERSON WHO
  • WAS ON THE BRINK OF MADNESS
leaders in germany japan4
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • HITLER JOINED THE NAZI PARTY AFTER THE WAR AND SOON GAINED CONTROL OF IT
  • – WHILE IN PRISON AFTER THE
  • PARTY ATTEMPTED A REBELLION
  • HE WROTE MEIN KAMPF
  • - “MY STRUGGLE”
  • - IN WHICH HE STATED HIS
  • EXPLANATIONS FOR THE
  • PROBLEMS FACING GERMANY
leaders in germany japan5
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • HITLER CRITICIZED MANY PEOPLE, POLITICAL PROGRAMS AND IDEOLOGIES BUT HIS SHARPEST ASSAULTS WERE AGAINST COMMUNISTS AND JEWS
  • – HE WAS ANTI-SEMITIC
  • – PREJUDICED AGAINST JEWISH
  • PEOPLE
leaders in germany japan6
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • ANTI-SEMITISM HAD TROUBLED EUROPE FOR CENTURIES MOTIVATED BY RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE AND ECONOMIC RESENTMENT
  • – LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY
  • – NEW PSUEDO-SCIENTIFIC
  • THEORIES ABOUT JEWS AS A
  • RACE
  • – ALONG WITH THE RISE OF
  • NATIONALISM
  • – CAUSED JEWS TO BE
  • MARGINALIZED AS ETHNIC
  • OUTSIDERS
leaders in germany japan7
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • HITLER STATED THAT THE
  • GREATEST THREAT FACING
  • GERMANY WAS THE JEWISH
  • PEOPLE
  • – IN MEIN KAMPF HITLER
  • PRESENTED A BLUEPRINT OF
  • HISHATREDS AND PLANS FOR
  • WORLDDOMINATION
leaders in g ermany japan
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • THE PRESIDENT OF THE WEIMAR
  • REPUBLIC (Paul von Hindenburg)
  • APPOINTED HITLER CHANCELLOR OF
  • GERMANY
  • – IN TWO YEARS HITLER BECAME
  • BOTH PRESIDENT AND CHANCELLOR
  • AND RULED UNCHECKED BY THE
  • REICHSTAG
  • – THE GERMAN PARLIAMENT
  • – BY 1935 THE DEMOCRATIC
  • INSTITUTIONS OF THE WEIMAR
  • REPUBLIC WERE SILENCED AND
  • HITLER SPOKE ALONE AS THE VOICE
  • OF GERMANY
leaders in germany japan8
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • HITLER WAS THE SYMBOL OF HIS TOTALITARIAN REGIME
  • – AIDED BY SECRET POPLICE THAT
  • CRUSHED ALL OPPOSITION, A
  • STATE CONTROLLED PRESS THAT
  • PRAISED HIS ACCOMPLISHMENT
  • AND A STATE CONTROLLED
  • EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM THAT
  • INDOCTRINATED THE YOUNG
leaders in germany japan9
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • BY THE LATE 1930S HITLER'S
  • ECONOMIC POLICIES, INCLUDING
  • REARMAMENT AND MASSIVE
  • PUBLIC WORKS PROJECTS HAD
  • ENDED THE DEPRESSION IN
  • GERMANY
  • – HIS POLITICAL INITIATIVES
  • RESTRICTED FREEDOM AND HE
  • OPENLY ATTACKED JEWISH
  • PEOPLE, COMMUNISTS AND
  • SOCIALISTS
leaders in germany japan10
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • 1920S JAPAN
  • – THE GOVERNMENT REDUCED
  • THE POWER OF THE MILITARY,
  • PASSED LAWS TO GIVE ALL MEN
  • THE RIGHT TO VOTE, LEGALIZED
  • TRADE UNIONS AND ALLOWED
  • SEVERAL DIVERSE POLITICAL
  • PARTIES TO BE ESTABLISHED
  • – ENDED WHEN THE DEPRESSION
  • DISCREDITED JAPAN'S CIVILIAN
  • LEADERS I N THE 1930S
leaders in germany japan11
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • MILITARY LEADERS ARGUED THAT
  • EXPANSION THROUGHOUT ASIA
  • WOULD SOLVE JAPAN'S ECONOMIC
  • PROBLEMS AND GUARANTEE
  • FUTURE SECURITY
  • JAPAN DID NOT BECOME A
  • TOTALITARIAN DICTATORSHIP
  • – IT CONTINUED AS A
  • CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
  • HEADED BY AN EMPEROR
leaders in germany japan12
Leaders in Germany & Japan
  • JAPAN STARTED ON A COURSE OF AGGRESSIVE
  • MILITARY EXPANSION
  • – ATTACHED MANCHURIA AND ESTABLISHED A PUPPET
  • STATE
  • – CONTROLLED ITS DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICIES
  • AND ITS NATURAL RESOURCES
  • JAPAN MOVED AGAINST CHINA
  • – GAINING CONTROL OVER MAJOR CHINESE RAILROAD
  • LINKS AND COASTAL AREAS
  • – IN NANKING JAPANESE SOLDIERS WERE BRUTAL
  • – MURDERING MORE THAN 200,000 AND BURNING A
  • LARGE SECTION OF THE CITY
  • – BECAME KNOWN AS THE “RAPE OF NANKING”
italian german aggression
Italian & German Aggression
  • ITALY AND GERMANY RESORTED TO ACTS OF AGGRESSION SIMILAR TO JAPAN
  • – NEITHER THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
  • NOR DEMOCRATIC NATIONS
  • SUCCEEDED IN STOPPING THE
  • AGGRESSION
italian german aggression1
Italian & German Aggression
  • HITLER FOCUSED ON RESTORING GERMANY'S STRENTH AND
  • NULLIFYING THE PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
  • – HE REBUILT THE GERMAN ECONOMY AND DRAMATICALLY
  • ENLARGED THE ARMY, NAVY AND AIR FORCE IN DIRECT
  • VIOLATION OF THE TREATY
  • HE BEGAN TO MOVE TOWARD HIS GOAL OF REUNIFYING ALL
  • GERMANIC PEOPLE INTO ONE REICH ( OR STATE )
  • HE WANTED LEBENSRAUM ( LIVING SPACE )
  • – FOR THE GERMAN PEOPLE
  • – HE SENT TROOPS INTO THE RHINELAND
  • – THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS DID NOTHING
italian g erman aggression
Italian & German Aggression
  • 1935
  • – MUSSOLINI INVADED ITALY
  • FASCISTS WERE ALSO
  • SUCCESSFUL IN THE SPANISH
  • CIVIL WAR
  • – THE NATIONALISTS REBELLED
  • AGAINST THE DEMOCRATIC
  • GOVERNMENT
  • – BOTH HITLER AND MUSSOLINI
  • SENT TROOPS TO AID
  • FRANCISCO FRANCO
  • – LEADER OF THE NATIONALISTS
appeasement
Appeasement
  • THE POLICY THAT FRANCE AND BRITAIN PURSUED AGAINST AGGRESSIVE NATIONS DURING THE 1930S
  • – MEANS A POLICY OF GRANTING
  • CONCESSIONS TO A POTENTIAL
  • ENEMY IN THE HOPE THAT IT
  • WILL MAINTAIN PEACE
  • – ONLY SPURRED THE FASCIST
  • LEADERS TO BECOME MORE
  • BOLD AND AGGRESSIVE
appeasement1
Appeasement
  • APPEASED FASCISTS BECAUSE WORLD WAR I WAS SO HORRIBLE THAT SOME LEADERS VOWED NEVER TO ALLOW ANOTHER SUCH WAR TO BREAK OUT
  • – SOME LEADERS BELIEVED THAT
  • THE SOVIET UNION POSED A
  • GREATER THREAT THAN NAZI
  • GERMANY
  • – MAINTAINED THAT A STRONG
  • GERMANY PROVIDE A BUFFER
  • AGAINST THE SOVIET UNION
appeasement2
Appeasement
  • US PLAYED A BIG ROLE IN THE POLICY OF APPEASEMENT
  • – FDR PURSUED A GOOD
  • NEIGHBOR POLICY WITH LATIN
  • AMERICA AND IMPROVED
  • RELATIONS WITH THE SOVIET
  • UNION
  • – DID NOT TAKE A FORCEFUL LINE
  • AGAINST GERMANY
  • – EMBRACED ISOLATIONISM
appeasement3
Appeasement
  • SPRING 1938
  • – HITLER BROUGHT AUSTRIA
  • INTO HIS REICH
  • – AUSTRIA HAD NO CHOICE BUT
  • TO ACCEPT THE UNION
  • – CALLED ANSCHLUSS
  • HITLER THEN TURNED TOWARD
  • THE SUDETENLAND
  • – A PORTION IN WESTERN
  • CZECHOSLOVAKIA THAT WAS
  • LARGELY POPULATED BY
  • ETHNIC GERMANS
appeasement4
Appeasement
  • BRITAIN AND FRANCE APPEASED GERMANY AT THE MUNICH CONFERENCE – MEETING BETWEEN HITLER, NEVILL
  • CHAMBERLAIN AND EDOUARD
  • DALADIER
  • – SACRAFICED THE SUDETENLAND
  • – CHAMBERLAIN TOLD A CHEERING
  • CROWD THAT THE MUNICH PACT
  • – THE AGREEMENT REACHED AT THE
  • CONFERENCE
  • – HAD PRESERVED “PEACE FOR OUR TIME”
  • - HE WAS WRONG
  • – IT POSTPONED WWII FOR 11 MONTHS