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Japan. Japan. Traditional Japanese music has been written down. Popular music in Japan comes and goes. It is not permanent. Essay. Shakuhachi – bamboo flute – Samurai/Zen Buddhist Koto – 13-stringed zither – palace Shamisen – 3 stringed lute – geisha. Shakuhachi Master, Yoshio Kurahashi

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japan2
Japan
  • Traditional Japanese music has been written down.
  • Popular music in Japan comes and goes. It is not permanent.
essay
Essay
  • Shakuhachi – bamboo flute – Samurai/Zen Buddhist
  • Koto – 13-stringed zither – palace
  • Shamisen – 3 stringed lute – geisha
shakuhachi
Shakuhachi Master,Yoshio Kurahashi

Bamboo Flute

Notched end

Shaku = 30 cm

Hachi = 24 cm

Or 21 ½ inches.

Shakuhachi
shakuhachi history
Shakuhachi History
  • Tokugawa era (1600-1867)
  • Shogun – military rulers
    • Samurai: warriors
    • Ronin: wandering Buddhist monks
    • Shakuhachi: Zen path to enlightenment
      • Breathing in and out.
      • Meditative
four classes
Four Classes
  • Samurai – warrior
  • Farmers
  • Craftsmen
  • Merchants
zen buddhism
Zen Buddhism
  • Satori – “Enlightenment”
    • Koan - stories
    • Zazen – sitting
    • Shakuhachi
      • I choon jobutsu
      • Enlightenment in a single note. Breathing in and out.
tusuru no sugomori
Tusuru no sugomori
  • Nesting Cranes
    • Depicts winter scene
    • Cranes making nests.
    • Trills: fluttering of wings
tusuru 2
Tusuru #2
  • Timbre: Tone color
    • Shakuhachi
    • Shamisen
      • Kabuki Theater
  • Texture: Heterophony
    • To versions of the same melody at the same time.
  • Form: Varied Repetitions
  • Mood: Meditative/Spiritual
tusuru 3
Tusuru #3
  • Beat: flexible pulse
    • Ma
  • Pitch
    • Long notes
    • Trills
    • Microtones
    • Finger articulation
slide11
1.8 meter

13 strings

Movable bridges

From China

Gained popularity in Tokugawa era.

Palace

Merchant class after 1868

Koto
koto in society
Koto in society
  • Good breeding in women
    • Homes
    • Tea houses
    • Theater
  • Merchant Class
rokudan
Rokudan
  • Six Sections
    • Dan (section)
      • Koto
      • Shamisen
      • Shakuhachi
    • Only 2 dans on recording
    • Listen for repeat patterns
    • Heterophony
scales
Scales
  • Yo: pentatonic, no half-steps
    • D E G A B
  • In: pentatonic, half-steps
    • D Eb G A Bb
shamisen
Shamisen
  • 3 stringed
  • Long-neck lute
  • Membrane head
  • No frets
shamisen use
Shamisen, use
  • Accompanies
    • Folksong
    • Kabuki (theater)
    • Bunraku (puppet theater)
hakusen no
Hakusen no
  • “A White Fan”
    • Kouta- vocal with shamisen
    • Nokan flute
  • Wedding
    • To honor the couple
    • Geisha
  • Form: alternating lines of 5 & 7 syllables
minyo
Minyo
  • Folk Song
  • City Dwellers
    • Nostalgia for rural life
nikata bushi
Song of Nikata

Asano Sanae

vocal

Shamisen

Nature

The temple town Kikata

A woman selling flowers

She doesn’t sell them

But enjoys them herself instead

On a high mountain

A cherry blossom tree at a mansion

Has seven branches

And blossoms abundantly

Nikata-bushi
matsuri bayashi
Matsuri-bayashi
  • Matsuri – Shinto Festival
    • Shinto – 500 BCE
      • Nature worship
      • Fertility cults
      • Divination
    • Shin-tao – “the way of the Gods”
      • Official religion (with Buddhism)
shinto 4 affirmations
Shinto – 4 Affirmations
  • Tradition and family
  • Love of nature
  • Physical cleanliness
  • Matsuri
    • Worship and honor given to ancestral spirits
matsuri bayashi22
Matsuri-bayashi
  • Shinto festival
  • Neighborhood shrine
    • Kami – goddess who gave birth to the Japanese islands
    • Parade
      • Mikoshi; portable shrine
yatai
Yatai
  • “The Festival Wagon”
    • 3 drums
    • Flute
    • Gong
  • Done by “amateurs”
    • More pious
enka song
Enka Song
  • Political song/popular
    • 1880s
  • Now more sentimental
nonki bushi
Enka Song

“Song of the Lazy Man”

Violin

Heterophony – two versions of the same melody at the same time.

The lazy man rides a horse and it begins to run and won’t stop.

A child enjoys this, asking, “Hey, where are you going?”

“If you want to know where I’m going, better ask the horse!”

Nonki Bushi
popular
“Popular”
  • Enka
  • Gunka – military
  • Karaoke
    • “empty orchestra”
listening
Listening
  • Tusuru no sugomori
    • Shakuhachi
    • Nesting Cranes
  • Hakusen no
    • Shamisen and voice
    • A White Fan
  • Yatai from Matsuri-bayashi
    • Shinto Festival
    • Drums, flute, gong