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運用學習歷程檔案 於 英語教學 Using Portfolios for Teaching English 台大外文系 楊乃冬 副教授 Nae-Dong Yang, Ph. D. naedong@ntu.edu.tw October 14 , 2005 94 年度技專院校北區英語教學中心 專題課程˙講座˙研討會 Portfolios Collections of students’ work Selected by the students With the teacher’s guidance

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using portfolios for teaching english

運用學習歷程檔案於英語教學Using Portfolios for Teaching English

台大外文系 楊乃冬 副教授

Nae-Dong Yang, Ph. D.

naedong@ntu.edu.tw

October 14, 2005

94年度技專院校北區英語教學中心 專題課程˙講座˙研討會

portfolios
Portfolios
  • Collections of students’ work
    • Selected by the students
    • With the teacher’s guidance
    • To represent their learning experiences
  • A type of personal assessment
    • Related to classroom activities
    • Assessing learning processes
learning strategy based lsb instruction
Learning Strategy-Based (LSB) Instruction
  • A learner-focused approach to teaching that emphasizes both explicit and implicit integration of language learning strategies in the language classroom.
  • LSB instruction helps students
    • become more aware of available strategies
    • understand how to organize and use strategies systematically and effectively
    • learn when and how to transfer the strategies to new contexts
procedures for lsb instruction
Procedures for LSB Instruction
  • Diagnosis
      • Identifying students’ strategies, beliefs, needs, etc.
  • Preparation/Awareness-Raising
      • Awareness-raising
      • Goal-setting
  • Instruction
      • Presenting direct and informed instruction
      • Offering plenty of different practice opportunities
  • Evaluation
      • Evaluating students’ strategy use and progress
      • Evaluating the strategy instruction
advantages of using portfolios
Advantages of Using Portfolios
  • Promote the use of metacognitive strategies
  • Motivate and enhance learning
  • Help future independent learning
  • Encourage collaborate learning
  • Show learning process and progress
  • Present learning results
  • Help affective factors
  • Others
disadvantages of using portfolios
Disadvantages of Using Portfolios
  • It took a lot of time.
  • It was too much trouble, a burden to prepare.
  • Some students might complete it in a short time and cheat on some samples or fake the records.
  • Some learning results and methods were hard to present.
  • Some learning process might not be easily recorded.
problems encountered
Problems Encountered
  • Time management
    • Studying, preparing the portfolios
  • Learning attitudes
    • Laziness, procrastination, indetermination
  • Problems in keeping a record
  • Information management
    • How to select or organize work
  • Other problems
    • Computers, access with radio and the Internet
concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks
  • Most students had positive reactions toward using the portfolio in the LSB instruction.
    • It offered directions and chances for learning.
  • The portfolios revealed students’ learning process and results
  • The portfolios also presented teacher’s instructional design and process
steps for compiling portfolios
Steps for Compiling Portfolios
  • Collect and select their works
  • Prepare a written reflection (i.e., cover sheet) for each section
  • Write a letter to the instructor
  • Evaluate their own performance
  • Prepare a table of contents
  • Organize the materials in a folder or binder
guided questions for thinking about a piece of writing
Guided Questions for Thinking about a Piece of Writing
  • Name of the piece I wrote:
  • Why I wrote it:
  • I wrote it for these people to read:
  • I got the idea for this piece from/by:
  • This is the __ (first, second, or third) draft.
  • The hardest thing about writing this was:
  • Things I could do to make this a better piece of writing:
questions for reflection
Questions for Reflection
  • How would you compare your writing now with the way it was at the beginning of this course?
  • Has your thought about English writing changed in any way?
  • What piece of work in you composition portfolio showed your development in this area?
  • How did any revisions of these pieces contribute to your growth?
  • In what specific ways had your writing changed?
students reactions
Students’ Reactions
  • Most of the students held positive attitudes toward portfolios because portfolios
    • Provide a chance to review and reflect on what they have done and learned
    • Reveal their progress, weaknesses, and strengths
    • Provide a sense of achievement
    • Facilitate autonomous learning by taking own responsibility
using portfolios in the writing course
Using Portfolios in the Writing Course
  • Document students’ writing process
  • Provide records of activities in class
  • Raise students’awareness about
    • taking control and responsibility of their learning
    • the writing process
  • Reinforce what they have learned
  • Help students in self-reflection and self-assessment
  • Provide the instructor with students’feedback and valuable information for improvement
  • Serve the function of evaluation
caveats
Caveats
  • Need careful planning on integrating portfolios into
    • the class process,
    • the students’ work, and
    • the students’ assessment
  • Need time to prepare for evaluation
    • Assembling the finished portfolios
    • Arranging Portfolio presentation and peer evaluation
    • Arranging masterpiece sharing and peer evaluation
    • Completing the final evaluation by the instructor
suggestions for teachers
Suggestions for Teachers
  • To incorporating portfolios into English or writing courses, teacher should
    • introduce the concepts of autonomous learning to students
    • provide detailed guidelines to help students develop their portfolios
    • emphasize self-reflection as an important element of portfolios
suggestions continued
Suggestions (continued)
  • Teachers could
    • provide samples to help students understand what makes a good portfolio
    • allocate adequate class time for assembling and sharing the portfolios
    • arrange individual conference with the students for discussing their writing and portfolios
    • encourage students to include more than one type of material in the portfolio
    • consider other media instead of paper for portfolios
concluding remarks21
Concluding Remarks

Portfolios do

  • raise students’ awareness about learning strategies,
  • facilitate their learning process, and
  • may enhance their self-directed learning.
goals of this project
Goals of this Project
  • To integrate the concepts of portfolios, autonomous learning, and e-learning
  • To design a Web-based learning portfolio (WBLP) system
  • To explore how to use the learning portfolio system in Web-based learning contexts as a learning and evaluation tool.
  • To investigate its effectiveness and possible challenges and problems
three types of courses
Three Types of Courses

1. E-learning-based course with some augmented classroom meetings

  • Online English Program

2. Classroom-based course with augmented Web-based learning materials

  • Freshman English
  • English Composition
  • Introduction to Second Language Acquisition

3. Pure e-learning course

  • English Internship
the wblp system freshman english
The WBLP system:Freshman English
  • For learning
    • To facilitate classroom instruction
      • Supplementary online exercises and resources
      • Handouts and guidelines to class activities
    • To assist students in taking control of own learning
      • Goal-setting and plan-making
  • For interaction
    • To create additional channels for communication among students and the instructor after class
      • Message board and Bulletin board
  • For evaluation
    • To facilitate multiple evaluations
      • Self evaluation
      • peer evaluation
      • Instructor evaluation
web based portfolios vs paper portfolios
Web-based Portfolios

Easy to manage files

High efficiency

User-friendly

Easy to revise writing and check errors

Save paper, environmental friendly

Can upload anytime

Can record learning easily and accurately

Can read and respond to each other’s writing

Paper Portfolios

Have more ways to present the contents

Provide an overview

Show more details

Good for eyesight

Trouble in saving documents

Web-based Portfolios vs. Paper Portfolios
problems and challenges encountered
Problems and Challenges Encountered
  • Technical design and implementation
    • Time and effort in developing the WBLP system
    • Communications between the researcher/designer and programmers
  • Clear directions and interface for the system
  • Transition to web-based contexts
    • Paper portfolios  e-portfolios
    • Classroom activities  online activities
  • Users and usage problems
portfolios as a learning tool
Portfolios as a Learning Tool
  • Documentation
    • Portfolios document the goal-setting, planning, learning, monitoring, and evaluating processes
  • Awareness-Raising
    • Portfolios raise students’ learning strategy awareness
  • Reinforcement
    • Portfolios reinforce the LSB instruction
  • Individualization
    • Portfolios cater to individual differences and enhance independent learning
references
References
  • Brown, J. D. (Ed.). (1998). New ways of classroom assessment. Alexandra, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.
  • Farr, Roger and Bruce Tone (1994). Portfolio and Performance Assessment: Helping Students Evaluate Their Progress as Readers and Writers. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  • Wenden, Anita (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy: Planning and implementing learner training for language learners. Herfordshire, UK: Prentice-Hall International.
  • Yang, N. D. (2003). Integrating portfolios into learning-strategy-based instruction for EFL college students. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 41, 4, 293-317.
  • Yang, N. D. (2003, March). Incorporating Portfolios into the EFL Writing Classrooms. The proceedings of 2003 International Conference and Workshop on TEFL & Applied Linguistics. Compiled by Department of Applied English, Ming Chuan University (pp. 476-483). Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
  • Yang, N. D. (2005, July). Building a Web-Based Learning Portfolio System. Paper presented at the 2005 World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A., July 24-29, 2005.